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1

Modal Model:

What are the 3 registers for incoming stimuli?

(Hint: IEH)

1. Iconic memory.
2. Echoic memory.
3. Haptic memory.

2

Modal Model:

Stimuli enters via 3 memory registers (iconic, echoic, haptic), which is then transferred to our:

short-term memory

3

Modal Model:

What is iconic memory?

Visual sensory memory.

4

Modal Model:

What is echoic memory?

Auditory info/sound memories.

5

Modal Model:

What is haptic memory?

Feeling and touch memories.

6

Short term memories are transferred to and from long-term memory via ________ and _________.

Short term memories are transferred to and from long-term memory via encoding and retrieval.

7

Mental processes that facilitate perceptual processing and thought, is called:

attention.

8

What are the 2 primary metaphors used to describe attention?

(hint: PR)

1. Process.
2. Resource

9

Describe the process metaphor of attention:

Filtering out or enhancing something for further processing.

10

Describe the resource metaphor of attention:

We have a limited capacity of energy that can be applied to processing.

11

What are the 2 forms of attention?

1. Covert
2. Overt

12

What is covert attention?

Selectively filtering input by focusing the internal 'spotlight' of attention.

13

What is overt attention?

Selectively filtering input by physically changing the sensory array. E.g. Moving our eyes to look at something interesting.

14

The decoupling of overt and covert attention was achieved by Posner (1980) using a:

(Hit: S-CT)

Spatial-Cueing Task

15

What was the hypothesis of Posner (1980) Spacial-Cueing Task?

Covert attention requires time to shift from one location to another.

Overt attention is limited by its spatial ability.

16

What was the method and logic of Posner (1980) Spacial-Cueing Task?

Subjects maintained gaze on a central location, where a cue indicated the location of a briefly displayed peripheral target letter.

Subjects were asked to indicate the target letter's identity as quickly and accurately as possible.

17

What were the 3 IV conditions in Posner (1980) Spacial-Cueing Task?

1. Valid cue.
2. Invalid cue.
3. Neutral cue.

18

In Posner (1980) Spacial-Cueing Task experiment, what percentage of the time did the valid cue condition indicate the correct location of the target letter to participants?

80% of the time.

19

In Posner (1980) Spacial-Cueing Task experiment, what percentage of the time did the invalid cue condition indicate the correct location of the target letter to participants?

20% of the time.

20

In Posner (1980) Spacial-Cueing Task experiment, what percentage of the time did the neutral cue condition indicate the correct location of the target letter to participants?

50% of the time.

21

What were the results of Posner (1980) Spacial-Cueing Task experiment?

Participants reaction times were greatest in the invalid cue condition, and shortest in the valid cue condition.

22

According to Treisman and Galade (1980), why is attention necessary?

Attentions binds together features of objects. so that we can form mental representations of them and understand spatial locations.

23

What was the method and logic of Treisman and Galade (1980) experiment on attention?

Subjects performed a visual search for target objects, with varying numbers of distractor objects. The time it took for subjects to find target objects was measured.

24

What were the 2 basic IV conditions in Treisman and Galade (1980) experiment on attention?

1. Disjunctive search.
2. Conjunctive search.

25

Describe the disjunctive search condition in Treisman and Galade (1980) experiment on attention?

Target objects were defined by a single feature.

26

Describe the conjunctive search condition in Treisman and Galade (1980) experiment on attention?

Target objects were defined by two features.

27

What were the results of Treisman and Galade (1980) experiment on attention?

Disjunctive search condition:

Conjunctive search condition:

Disjunctive search condition:

Reaction times remained the same, regardless of the number of distractor objects present.

Conjunctive search condition:

Reaction times increased when more distractor objects were present.

28

What was the conclusion of Treisman and Galade (1980) experiment on attention?

As attention binds together features of objects, the more features a target object has, the longer it takes us to focus on it when other objects are present.

29

What are the 2 basic processes involved in attention?

(Hint: AC)

1. Automatic processes.
2. Controlled processes.

30

Attention as a resource:

What are 5 features of automatic processes?

1. Non-intentional.
2. Not open to introspection.
3. Do not consume mental resources.
4. Do not conflict with other mental processes (e.g. can multitask).
5. Very fast (< 1 sec)