Flashcards in 3.6 Alcohol Metabolism Deck (22)
T or F, Alcohol is absorbed from all parts of the GI tract by diffusion especially by small intestine which is the most effective
What are the two major routes (enzymes) of ethanol oxidation
Cytochrome P450 (MEOS)
Ethanol Oxidation produces what?
What are the four main routes or enzymes used to oxidize ethanol?
Catalase dependent system
Where does MEOS occur?
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Where does Alcohol Dehydrogenase function?
What are the three results of oxidative ethanol oxidation?
1. Acetaldehyde adducts form
2. Increased ROS formation
3. Increased NADH/NAD+ ratio
What is the common route of ethanol oxidation in occasional drinkers and low concentrations of alcohol
Alcohol Dehydrogenase -- > Acetaldehyde --> Aldehyde Dehydrogenase --> Acetate
What occurs to the acetate that is produced by the Alcohol Dehydrogenase pathway?
It is typically converted to Acetyl CoA with the help of GTP
What is the major Isoenzyme for ADH and where is it found?
Found in Liver, Stomach and lungs
What allele of ALDH2 is least effective?
What are the top four consequences of Increased NADH/NAD+ ration?
2. Lactic Acidemia
How does alcohol seem to produce more urine?
It inhibits the release of anti-diuretic hormone which in turn increases urine
What causes Hypoglycemia?
With increased NADH/NAD ratio, the GNG is suppressed and shifts towards Lactate which decreases glucose availability
What causes Ketonemia?
Increase in NADH prevents CAC from running. This leaves behind a build up of Acetyl CoA to be converted into Ketone Bodies
What causes the Fatty Liver
1. The increased concentration of acetaldehyde adducts binds to fat in the liver to a point to where VLDL cannot leave the liver.
What occurs in the liver during the decrease of Receptor Mediated endocytosis?
HDL and LDL cannot reenter the liver and therefore transport in this manner is decreased
What is the Kcal/g for alcohol?
Alcohol leads to what for occasional drinkers?
Alcohol leads to what in ALCOHOLICS?
Name the three vitamin deficiencies as an effect of alcohol consumption
Folic Acid deficiency
Thiamine levels low
Vitamin A levels low