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Flashcards in 3.3 anatomy of the brain Deck (46)
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1

the brain

major control centre, for our behaviour and psychological experiences
subdivided into three parts: hind brain, mid brain and forebrain
divided into two cerebral hemispheres: left and right

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the hindbrain

-midbrain
-pons
-cerebellum
-medulla
-spinal cord
(damage to this part is very lethal, b/c they are part of life substantial functions)
-form our functions without a need for us to be aware
ex.breath, hearts pumping

3

medulla

regulates breathing, heart rate, sneezing, salivating and vomiting

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pons

contributes to our sleeping and waking cycle, and helps to control our balance, eye movements and swallowing

5

reticular activating system

important for alertness and contributes to everyday cycle of waking and sleeping
behind the spinal cord

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Cerebellum

important for coordinating movements , maintaining balance, and also influences attention and emotional responses

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midbrain

located behind hindbrain
serves as our transmission point for info for our senses
physical movement

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midbrain:
superior colliculus

controls our orienting response to the sudden presence of a visual stimulus

9

midbrain:
inferior colliculus

responsible for orienting attention to the sudden occurrence of a sound

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forebrain

ventricles are filled with cerebrospinal fluid
-lateral ventricle
-third ventricle
-fourth ventricle
-cerebral aqueduct

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cerebrospinal fluid

performs important waste removal and nutrient providing functions

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forebrain
basal ganglia:

responsible for engaging planned physical movements, learning motor skills, and integrating sensory info physical movement, and the reward system of the brain
-thamlya
-amygdala

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disorders that originate from basal ganglia dysfunction include;

-parkinsons disease-uncontrollable motor function
-Huntington's disease- cant control their muscles from twitching
-tourette's syndrome

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tourette's syndrom

may be unable to control facial and muscle movement, their eyes from blinking, or from making grunting or snorting noises
Corprolalia-shouting offensive words is a rare symptom

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the forebrain
nucleus accumbens

works with the basal ganglia to generate pleasurable experiences

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forebrain
limbic system

-contains parts critical for memory and emotion
amygdala
hippocampus
hypothalamus
thalamus

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amygdala

controls the creation of memory for emotional experiences and processing emotional content of stimuli

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hippocampus

key structure for creating new memories
damage to this can cause catastrophic amnesia

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hypothalamus

regulates body temperature and helps coordinate biological drives, such as sex and aggression, by controlling the release of hormones by the pituitary gland
-orgasms for both genders depend on signals originating from this structure

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thalamus

relay station for receiving and transmitting sensory info from the eyes, ears, skin and tongue to higher brain areas

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cerebral cortex

large and dense with neurons
serves as primary explanations for our mental advantages over other species
abilities to plan, make decisions , solve problems creatively, think deep thoughts and language, and our personalities
white matter(axons) , grey matter(neurons), ventricles(

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neurons in cerebral cortex

mice - millions
dogs -160m
cats 300m
chimpanzees 6 billion
humans 19-23b

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cerebral cortex lobes

frontal lobe
parietal lobe
occipital lobe
temporal lobe

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occipital lobes

devoted to early processing of visual info with direct connections from the regions of the thalamus that relay inputs from the eyes to our brains
AKA primary visual cortex

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Parietal lobes

receive info about the visual world from the occipital lobes and use it to provide us with info for visually guided action
-also contain the somatosensory cortex, which controls our sense of touch

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temporal lobes

receive inputs from occipital cortex and use them to provide info about the identity and meaning of visual stimuli
top
-contains the area fro early processing of auditory info
AKA primary auditory cortex
-damage hear causing hearing impairments, cortical deafness
front
-essential for accessing general knowledge about the world
back
wernickes area- controls speech comprehension and written comprehension

27

frontal lobes
brocas area

involved in articulation spoken words

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frontal lobes

-source of planning, initiating actions in support of those plans, creative problem-solving, language productions, and hosts our personalities
-control suppressing emotional responses when they are inappropriate for the context
back
primary motor cortex-controls voluntary movements

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hemispheric specialition

right-art, creativity-music
left-language, logic and math
the idea of a division of labour b/w the hemispheres have some supportive evidence, but have also been highly exaggerated

30

corpus callosum

thick band of neural tissues which connects left and right

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