What allows bacillus organisms to survive in the environment?
What's wrong with Bob?
Bob has Bacillus anthrasis
What are the symptoms associated with inhalational anthrax? What is the associated mortality rate?
What is one of the key features of inhalational anthrax seen on imaging?
What are the two forms of GI anthrax?
Oropharyngeal: local ulceration leading to regional lymphadenopathy (tonsilitis), edema and fever
Intestinal: ulcer w/ initial symptoms of fever, nausea, vomiting, malaise, followed by bloody diarrhea or sepsis
What is the key feature of cutaneous anthrax?
Painless pauple develops into a black necrotic ulcer (eschar) with edema
What is the pathogenesis of bacillus?
What is the unique feature of the antiphagocytic capsule of bacillus?
What are the two active subunits of the A3-B7 anthrax exotoxin?
Edema (EF): activates adenylate cyclase -> increased cAMP
Lethal factor (LF): inactivates MAP-kinase-kihase -> results in necrosis
Draw a diagram of the bacillus A-B toxin pathogeneis.
After a presumptive diagnosis of Bacillus is made, what confirmatory labs are conducted by the CDC?
What is the DOC for Bacillus anthrasis?
What preventive measure can be enacted if a patient is at risk for inhalation anthrax?
60 days of antibiotic prophylaxis
What human mAb targets PA of Bacillus anthrasis?
What are some of the defining characterstics of Bacillus cereus?
Gram pos, spore-forming, facultative anaerobe, motile, beta-hemolytic on SBA, ubiquitous in soil
What causes the emetic form of GI dz caused by Bacillus cereus?
What causes the diarrheal form of GI dz caused by Bacillus cereus?
What type of eye pathogy is associated with Bacillus cereus?
What is the DOC for Bacillus cereus?
Vancomycin or Clindamycin
Proper refrigeration of food
What diagnostic tests can help lock down a diagnosis of Bacillus cereus?
Contaminated food or infected patient specimen (eye, IV, site, etc)
Generally no fecal samples
What are the general characteristics of Listeria?
What type of hemolysis is Listeria?
Weak beta-hemolytic: zone of lysis is narrow
What unique about Listeria and its growth?
Grows at 4 degrees Celcius, refrigeration of food is not sufficient
What subgroup of the population is at most risk for a Listeria infection?
Pregnant Women (risk increased 20-fold)
What are some characteristics of Early-onset Listeria dz?
Granulomatosis infanticeptica: disseminated abscesses and granuloma in multiple organs
80% mortality rate
What are some characteristics of Late-onset Listeria dz?
Acquired at birth or soon thereafter
70% mortality rate
What are some of the dz's caused by Listeria in immunocompromised pts?
Meningitis, bacteremia, 50% fatality rate in severely immunocompromised pts and infants
Where do Listeria infections typically initiate?
Enterocytes or M cells in Peyer's patches
What type of immunity is essential for clearing a Listeria infection?
What are the 4 main virulence factors of Listeria?
Internalins (Inl): forced phagocytosis
Listeriolysin O (LLO): pore-forming hemolysin
2 Phospholipases (PI-PLC, PC-PLC)
Actin-binding protein (ActA): Mediates actin polymerization