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Flashcards in 3.2 nervous system Deck (35)
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1

structure of neurons

-soma
-dendrites
-axon
-myelin sheath
-axon terminals

2

neurons job is to fire or not to fire

-firing decreses the chance the adjacent neurons will fire

3

soma

cell body
houses cell nuceleus

4

neurons receive messages from other neurons

dendrites
-tiny branches projecting from cell body

5

as dendrites recieve messages

they send them to the rest of the cells which travel to the base of the cell body called axon hillock with enough stimulation chemical reactions happen here and flows through the rest of the neuron to the axon

6

axon

when the chemical reaction reaches the end of the axon they reach the axon terminals which are little bulbs filled with molecules called neurotransmitters, activity reaching the axon terminals will stimulate the release of neurotransmitters which react with the dendrites of other neurons

7

diff types of neurons

motor- send messages from brain down spinal cord to limbs to muscles
sensory-receive neurons from the senses, and deliver messages to the brain for farther processing, pressure signals, or pain

8

glial cells

responsible for maintenance activities
-ex activating immune response, facilitate neurons
10* the amount of neurons
-to coat neurons that are responsible for sending rapid messages throughout the brain
-they coat the axon in myelin (insulates axons so that the activity travels much faster)

9

M S

is a debilitating neurological disorder that produces a range of symptoms
-happens because of lack of myelin

10

neural firing

-resting potential (not firing) (-vely charged)
-positively charged ions rush into the cell during an action potential
-after the nerve has fired, the positively charged ions are pumped back out of the cell

11

electrostatic gradient

the inside and outside of the neuron have different charges

12

concentration gradient

there are different types of ions dominating the inside vs.outside of the neuron
-thee imbalances keep the neuron in a state of tension

13

when stimulated, a neuron...

ion channels open and positive ions rush in and may result in the neuron firing
AKA as generating an action potential

14

back to resting potential the +ve ions are pumped out

hyper polarization occurs and the neuron is more negatively charged than before the action potential
-this means that the neuron is briefly unable to fire, which is a phase called, the refractory period

15

once the action potential reaches an axon terminal is stimulates a release of neural transmitters into a gap b/w the axon terminal and of the firing neuron and the dendrite of an adjacent neuron

gap is called the synapse
presynaptic sends the message
post synaptic receives messages

16

postsynapitic cell has special receptors for

receiving neurons

17

excitatory neurotransmitters

increase the chance that the postsynaptic neuron will fire by causing the charge inside the neuron to be less negative

18

inhibitory neurotransmitters

decrease the chance that the postsynaptic neuron will fire by causing the charge inside the neuron to be more negative

19

all or non principle

a neuron either generates an action potential or doesn't generate one, but the magnitude of the action potential is the same every time

20

a neuron can represent higher intensity stimulation by firing more...

frequently over time rather than how strongly they fire each time

21

synaptic cleft

reuptake
neurotransmitters get reabsorbed into the axon terminal

22

common neurotransmitters

glutamate-responsible for brain functions (excitatory)
GABA-inhibitory for sleep, reducing arousal
acetylcholine-control voluntary movement

23

drug effects on neural activity

agonist-stimulate receptor sites for a particular neurotransmittor
-increase stimulation for post synaptic neurons
- bind to receptor
antagonist-block receptor
-prevent production
(look up direct and indirect)

24

the endocrine system

hormones are secreted from structures called endocrine glands and enter the blood stream
-delivers hormones to modify physiological processes and maintaining body homeostasis

25

hypthatlamus is the control system in the endocrine system

brain structure that delivers messages about out biological needs to the pituitary gland

26

pituitary gland

brain structure that releases hormones and stimulates the production of hormones by the other glands that form the endocrine system

27

arousal glands

stimulates the production of hormones, such as cortisol and epinephrin,that generate arousal responses

28

pituitary glands also release endorphins

stimulate pleasure centers in the brain and inhibit signals of pain and displeasure

29

central nervous system

brain
spinal cord

30

peripheral nervous system

somatic nervous stystem
autonomic nervous system

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