What is a polymer?
Molecule made of large number of monomers joined together
What are monomers?
Small, basic molecular units
Name the 3 elements all carbohydrates contain
C, H & O
What are the monomers in carbohydrates?
(e.g. glucose, fructose, galactose)
What type of sugar is glucose?
Hexose sugar (monosaccharide with 6 carbon atoms in each molecule)
Name the 2 types of glucose
alpha (α) & beta (β)
Draw the skeletal structure for α-glucose
Draw the skeletal structure for β-glucose
In alpha glucose the OH is...
below the plane of the ring
In beta glucose the OH is...
above the plane of the ring
What is a condensation reaction?
Joining together of molecules with a chemical bond & the elimination of a water molecule (it's released)
How are monosaccharides joined together?
By condensation reactions
What type of bond is formed between the 2 monosaccharides as molecule of water is released?
A glycosidic bond
What is formed when 2 monosaccharides join together?
How is sucrose formed?
Formed from condensation reaction between α-glucose molecule and fructose molecule
What is lactose formed from?
From glucose molecule & galactose molecule
What is maltose formed from?
From 2 α-glucose molecules
What is hydrolysis?
Breaking of the chemical bond between monomers using a water molecule
When are polysaccharides formed?
When more than 2 monosaccharides are joined together by condensation reactions
Where is starch located in organisms?
Many parts of plants in the form of small grains + large amounts found in seeds & storage organs
What is the purpose of starch?
Plants store excess glucose as starch
How is starch produced?
Condensation of many α-glucose sub units, which then form hydrogen bonds with molecules in the same chain
Starch is a mixture of...
2 polysaccharides of alpha-glucose
Name the 2 polysaccharides of alpha-glucose found in starch
Describe the structure of amylose
Long, unbranched chain of α-glucose
Describe how the structure of amylose relates to its function
Angles of the glycosidic bonds = coiled structure → makes it compact = can fit more into a small space (= good for storage)
Describe the structure of amylopectin
Long, branched chain of α-glucose
Describe the structure of amylopectin relates to its function
Its side branches allow the enzymes that break down starch to get at the glycosidic bonds easily = glucose can be released quickly
α-glucose molecules are formed by what type of glycosidic bonds?
1,4 & 1,6 glycosidic bonds
Where is glycogen located in organisms?
Stored as small granules mainly in liver and some in muscles