3.1.1 Biological Molecules Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.1.1 Biological Molecules Deck (105)
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1

What is a polymer?

Molecule made of large number of monomers joined together

2

What are monomers?

Small, basic molecular units

3

Name the 3 elements all carbohydrates contain

C, H & O

4

What are the monomers in carbohydrates?

Monosaccharides

(e.g. glucose, fructose, galactose)

5

What type of sugar is glucose?

Hexose sugar (monosaccharide with 6 carbon atoms in each molecule)

6

Name the 2 types of glucose

alpha (α) & beta (β)

7

Draw the skeletal structure for α-glucose

8

Draw the skeletal structure for β-glucose

9

In alpha glucose the OH is... 

below the plane of the ring

10

In beta glucose the OH is... 

above the plane of the ring

11

What is a condensation reaction?

Joining together of molecules with a chemical bond & the elimination of a water molecule (it's released)

12

How are monosaccharides joined together?

By condensation reactions

13

What type of bond is formed between the 2 monosaccharides as molecule of water is released?

A glycosidic bond

14

What is formed when 2 monosaccharides join together?

A disaccharide

15

How is sucrose formed?

Formed from condensation reaction between α-glucose molecule and fructose molecule

16

What is lactose formed from?

From glucose molecule & galactose molecule

17

What is maltose formed from?

From 2 α-glucose molecules 

18

What is hydrolysis?

Breaking of the chemical bond between monomers using a water molecule

19

When are polysaccharides formed?

When more than 2 monosaccharides are joined together by condensation reactions

20

Where is starch located in organisms?

Many parts of plants in the form of small grains + large amounts found in seeds & storage organs

21

What is the purpose of starch?

Plants store excess glucose as starch

22

How is starch produced?

Condensation of many α-glucose sub units, which then form hydrogen bonds with molecules in the same chain

23

Starch is a mixture of...

2 polysaccharides of alpha-glucose

24

Name the 2 polysaccharides of alpha-glucose found in starch

  • Amylose
  • Amylopectin

25

Describe the structure of amylose

Long, unbranched chain of α-glucose

26

Describe how the structure of amylose relates to its function

Angles of the glycosidic bonds = coiled structure → makes it compact = can fit more into a small space (= good for storage)

27

Describe the structure of amylopectin

Long, branched chain of α-glucose

28

Describe the structure of amylopectin relates to its function

Its side branches allow the enzymes that break down starch to get at the glycosidic bonds easily = glucose can be released quickly

29

α-glucose molecules are formed by what type of glycosidic bonds?

1,4 & 1,6 glycosidic bonds

30

Where is glycogen located in organisms?

Stored as small granules mainly in liver and some in muscles

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