3. Unions late 19th century Flashcards Preview

history TU 1 Position of unions and organised labour > 3. Unions late 19th century > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3. Unions late 19th century Deck (20)
Loading flashcards...

Knights of Labour (KOL)
1. founded?
3. successful strike?
4. lost influence?

1. 1869
3. against Wabash Railroad in 1885 = encouraged workers to join
4. following Haymarket affair of 1886


American Federation of Labour (AFL)
1. what did it replace
2. what did it attempt
3. how many members by 1914

1. KOL
2. unite all unions
3. 2 million


Industrial workers of the world
1. when set up?
2. reputation?
3. what did it attempt?
4. drawbacks?

1. 1905
2. violence and militancy
3. fight for rights of poorer workers and immigrants
4. violence = constantly under pressure from authorities


what did increasing industrialisation result in

development and growth of a number of unions
(most notably KOL and AFL)


KOL membership before and after successful strike against the Wasbash Railroad in 1885
1. 1881
2. 1886

1. 20,000
2. 700,000


KOL membership
1. before violence of Haymarket affair in 1886
2. membership by 1890

1. 700,000
2. 100,000


why was Industrial Workers of the World less effective

militancy and violence = disliked by employers


membership of industrial workers of the world

100,000 members by 1923 but went in decline thereafter


why is the membership of unions important

more membership = more influence / ability to exert pressure on employer


what affected membership of unions other than unsuccessful strikes

divisions within workforce


during this period why did white workers no longer enjoy a monopoly of the labour market

abolition of slavery/end of civil war = arrival of AA workers
often accepted lower rates of pay = white workers laid off and replaced with AA


as well as influx of AA into available pool of workers there were new immigrants from

Europe and Asia


why did unions not allow AA and immigrants to join

saw arrival as a challenge


why was a divided workforce bad

easier for employers to exploit them


what other 2 strikes weakened the progress in obtaining rights for workers (not the Haymarket affair)

Homestead strike of 1892
Pullman strike of 1894


The Homestead strike of 1892
1. what did it result in?

1. bankrupted the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel workers


The Homestead strike of 1892
2. how did it affect membership? 1881 vs 1909?

3. decline in union membership.
24,000 in 1881
6300 by 1909


The Pullman Strike 1894
1. why did it develop

1. refusal of employers to recognise collective bargaining
(shows difficulties unions faced in trying to gain recognition)


what was achieved by the outbreak of WW1 in 1914
(2 things)

1. union membership grown to 2 million members
2. unions had begun to put pressure on candidates in elections to support workers rights


what factors suggest position of organised labour was no stronger by 1914 than in 1865
(5 things)

1. unions represented only 20% of work force (non-agricultural)
2. many industries still no unions (steel & car manufacturing)
3. many unions not legally recognised = lacked real power over decisions
4. workers divided by ethnicity, gender and level of skill (exploited by employers)
5. gains often limited to white, male, skilled workers.