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Flashcards in 2nd Exam: review sheet and notes Deck (101)
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Barron v. Baltimore

Govt. took his property (takings clause), Barron said that he should be compensated.
Constitution only applies to national government, not state.


Palko v. Conn.

Got the electric chair for murder, when he could have been saved by double jeopardy.
Established the principle of selective incorporation


Selective incorporation

the process by which different protections in the bill of rights were incorporated into the 14th amendment, thus guaranteeing citizens protection from state as well as national government


Skinner v. Oklahoma

S.C. struck down sterilization Oklahoma law, which brought up "strict scrutiny" (compelling state interest); shifted from rational scrutiny to strict scrutiny


Rational scrutiny

Burden of proof is on the person who brings up the claim; got changed to strict scrutiny


Cohen v. California

Cohen said "f*** the draft"; struck down Californian law against offensive speech.
Offensive speech is protected under first amendment.


Texas v. Johnson

Burned flag under protest; struck down Texas law pertaining to burning flags because it didn't cause a riot & actually brought up higher patriotism


U.S. v. Eichman

Struck down the federal law (flag protection act) and flag burning is protected


Roth v. U.S

obscene speech is not protected
-porn is obscene (freedom of press), meaning utterly w/ out redeeming value or completely devoid of value whatsoever
- established the Roth test


Roth Test

whether the average person applying the contemporary community standards finds the work taken as a whole to appeal to the prurient interest


Miller Test

test determining that which is pornographic:
1. Roth test
2. states local governments discretion to decide on its own what is obscene
3.redefines obscenity; whether the work lacks serious value.


Jacobellis v. Ohio

Famous of opinion of Justice Potter Stewart defined pornography as "I know it when I see it."


Near v. Minnesota

Struck down Minnesota law and established doctrine of no prior restraint


Furman v. Georgia 1972

S.C. struck down death penalty saying it violated 8th amendment


Gregg v. Georgia

S.C. reinstated the death penalty containing;
1. mitigating circumstances, things help explain what happen
2. aggravating circumstances ex. killing someone of the law
3. Auto appeal


Jurek v. TX 1976

upheld death penalty


Coker v. Georgia

established that you can't get the death penalty unless you take a life (physically kill someone)


Kennedy v. LA 2010

did not abandon stare-decisis; confirmed precedent case (Coker v. GA)
Story: he raped his 8 yr old step daughter, but he couldn't get the death penalty because he didn't kill anyone. Rape can't give you the death penalty


Establishment clause (of religion)

1st amendment clause that says "congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion" this law means that a "wall of seperation" exists between church and state (SAYS CHURCH AND STATE ARE TO BE SEPERATE), must show secular purpose


Free Exercise clause (of religion)

asking for exemption from law because of religious views; the 1st amendment clause that protects a citizen's right to believe and practice whatever religion he or she chooses


Reynolds v. U.S.

brought up belief-action distinction; tried to strike down polygamy but failed


Minnersville v. Gobitis 1940

Minnersville school had a solute the flag procedure & Gobitis children who were Jehovah Witness' were told to solute the flag, but their religion was against honoring other false idols so they asked for exemption from the rule but were denied


W. Virginia v. Barnett 1942

abandoned stare-decisis; reversed themselves in Minnersville v. Gobitis allowing Jahovis Witness' to be exempt from saluting the U.S. flag


Habeas corpus

a court order demanding that an individual in custody be brought into court and shown the cause for detention


Bill of Rights

the first 10 amendments to the U.S. constitution, ratified in 1971; they ensure certain rights and liberties to the poeple


Civil liberties

areas of personal freedom with which governments are constrained from interfering


Bill of Attainder

a law that declares a person guilty of a crime without a trial


Ex post facto law

a law that declares an action to be illegal after it has been committed


Laissez-faire capitalism

an economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for profit with minimal or no government interference; hands off



followers of the economic theories of John Maynard Keynes, who argued that the government can stimulate the economy by increasing public spending or by cutting taxes