Describe the characteristics of selective pressure.
What are the characteristics of bacterial mutations?
Describe the characteristics of spontaneous mutations.
What are base substitutions?
Describe the removal and addition of nucleotides.
Describe the characteristics of transposons.
What mutation is caused by ultraviolet light?
Covalent binding between adjactent nucleotides creating thymine dimers.
Distortion of DNA
What types of mutation is caused by x-ray and gamma radiation?
Causes breaks and alterations in DNA
What mutagens result from nitrous acids and alkylating agents.
What does 2-aminopurine and 5-bromouracil do?
Describe the characteristics of intercalating agents.
What are the different DNA repair mechanisms.
Describe DNA proofreading and mismatcb repair.
Describe the process of repairing thymine dimers.
Describe the characteristics of SOS repair.
Describe the regulation of SOS response.
Induced by the Binding of RecA protein to single strand DNA
Describe genetic exchange in bacteria.
What is bacterial transformation?
From First Aid: The ability of a DNA to take up naked DNA (from a lysed cell) from environment (also known as competence). Adding deoxyribonuclease to environment will degrade naked DNA in medium leading to no transformation.
Describe the process of natural transformation.
What are the 4 stages of natural transformation?
Describe the characterisitics of transformation of gram-positive bacteria.
Describe transformation in gram-negative bacteria.