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Flashcards in 24 Tobacco Dependence Deck (15)
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How would you treat a PE if the patient was becoming hypotensive?

(body cannot dissolve the clot quick enough)


streptokinase or tissue plasminogen activator 


When does wheezing occur and why?

- Expiration as there is more resistance on expiration 


- Due to narrowing of airways so high pitched whistling sound


What is consolidation and why are bronchial breath sounds heard when you auscultate over an area of consolidation?

- When air from the airways is replaced by something else 

- As the consolidation conducts sounds from larger airways so heard louder


Why is there creptius over the wound, why does he have a low blood pressure and how would you manage this patient?

- Fracture of the rib 


- Increased pressure in the right side so reduced venous return as SVC compression and mechanical shock 


- Insert cannula into 2nd ICS mid clavicular line - reliev tension pneuomthorax 



What are some lung conditions that cause mediastinal shift to the same side? 

- Lobar collapse 

- Pulmonary fibrosis 


If your're a smoker, what are your chances of dying from tobacco related disease?

If you are a smoker, chances of dying from a tobacco related disease are 1 in 2 


Why is knowing about the prevalence of smoking important?

- 14 in 100 smoke 

- Tobacco related disease is the single biggest cause of preventable morbidity and mortality 


What are some tobacco related diseases?

- Risk of CVS disease 

- More likely to get influenza 

- Risk of sudden infant death 

- Lung cancer

- Stroke



What are the markers of addiction?


How does nicotine cause an addiction on a chemical level?

- Acts on nAchR to stimulate dopamine release so satisfaction


- Chronic nicotine exposure causes AChR to be upregulated, increasing affinity and sensitivity to an agonist 


- Drop in nicotine leads to withdrawals


- Takes 6-12 weeks fo receptors to desensitise after last cigarette


What is the speed of nicotine delivery?



What approach should a doctor initially take to try and stop somebody from smoking? (AAA)

Health professional have big impact on a person's decision and low NNT (number needed to treat to prevent one death) so good 


What are some pharmacological treatments for a tobacco addiction?

- Long acting patches 

- Short acting gum, lozenges, spray 

- Champix for 4-12 weeks

Course of tablets which can help to relieve the craving and withdrawal symptoms associated with stopping smoking


What is a harm reduction approach to curing a tobacco addiction?

- E-Cigarettes 

--> Contain nicotine but not tobacco so still addiction but less harm from tobacco


What are the arguments for and against the use of e-cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy for tobacco addiction?