2.4. Sustainable management of coasts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.4. Sustainable management of coasts Deck (16)
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1

How can coastal defences be categorised?

  • Hard engineering
  • Soft engineering

2

Hard engineering

  • Some physical structure has to be built and maintained
  • Requires money, manpower and technology
  • Protects only one part of the coast but creates problems elsewhere
  • May cause harms to humans

3

Soft engineering

  • Involves proper planning management and use of the coast as well as encouraging human interference along the coast
  • Involves educating people
  • Environmentally friendly

4

Examples of hard engineering

  • Rip rap
  • Gabion
  • Groynes
  • Sea wall
  • Breakwater
  • Revetments

5

Rip rap

  • giant boulders placed at the foot (bottom) of cliffs.
  • designed to absorb the waves energy and protect the cliffs behind.
  • can be effective, but does look ugly, may reduce access to the beach
  • can be expensive

6

Gabion

  • boulders placed in cage
  • can be installed quickly and again is fairly effective
  • reduces access to the beach
  • can be expensive

7

Groynes

  • designed to stop longshore drift
  • protects only one part of the coast
  • can be expensive

8

Sea wall

  • absorb wave energy
  • sometimes they are recurved to direct the waves energy back out to sea => not effective
  • can be expensive

9

Breakwater

  • Instead of breaking on the coast, waves, break on the breakwater
  • are often found around the mouths of rivers and ports
  • can disrupt shipping and animals

10

Revetments

  • similar to sea walls, but often built out of wood
  •  found at the foot of cliffs they are designed at absorb the waves energy
  • require continuous efforts for maintenance

11

Examples of soft engineering

  • Dune stabilisation
  • Cliff regarding
  • Beach nourishment
  • Beach drainage
  • Managed retreat

12

Dune stabilisation

  •  planting vegetation on the berm of the beach or on the dunes
  • making them more stable (roots) and reducing the moisture content (root uptake)

13

Cliff regrading

  • makes cliffs less steep
  • by reducing the angle you should reduce the undercutting and the risk of the cliff collapsing.

14

Beach nourishment

adding more sand to the beach

15

Beach drainage

removing some of the excess water to reduce stress on the cliff

16

Managed retreat

  • allowing the sea to take back land
  • allowing changes to some inland ecosystems by adding salt water.