2.2 psychological research methods Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.2 psychological research methods Deck (28)
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1

naturalistic observations

observing participants in real world contexts and taking a record of their behaviour

2

surveys/ questionnaires

involves having individuals provide answers to a series of questions

3

correlational reseach

provides a measure of the degree of association b/w two variables

4

positive correlations

when higher values on one variable tend to co-occur with higher values on another

5

negative correlation

when higher values on one variable tend to co-occur with lower values on another

6

positive correlations generate correlation co-efficients between

0 and +1

7

negative correlations generate correlation co-efficients between

0 and -1

8

strong correlations between variables (+ive or -ive) do not mean that there is a ________ ____________ b/w the two variables

causal relationship

9

causal direction problem

ex. if curly hair were positively correlated with more fun, we wouldn't know whether :
1. curly hair causes more fun
2. having fun makes hair curly

10

third variable problem

maybe some other variable causes both curlier hair and a greater sense of fun, ex genes / pills

11

experiments

are uniquely designed to provide answers about the causal relationship b/w variables
-they allow this because they involve manipulation of one or more variables

12

random assignment to experimental conditions

helps to ensure that participants in te two groups are roughly equal on all other important characteristics

13

confounding variables

variables that differ b/w experimental conditions tother than the one that the experimenter seeks to manipulate (bad to have in an experiment)

14

independent variables

the variable or (s) being manipulated in an experiment

15

dependant variable

the variable or (s) being measured in an experiment

16

experimental condition

the one involving some active treatment, such as administration of a drug, providing some other type of therapy or curling their hair

17

control condition

the one involving no active treatment, but that is used as a basis for comparison, such as administration of a placebo, giving them some SHAM type of therapy, or playing with their hair without curling it

18

between-subjects design

when diff people participate in diff conditions of an experiment

19

within subjects design

when the same ppl each participant in all conditions of an experiment

20

statistics

descriptive statistics and inferential statistics

21

descriptive statistics

used as summarized data
1. provide measure of frequency (distribution, skewed, non-skewed)
2. provide measure of central tendency (Mean and median and mode)
3. provide a measure of variability (standard deviation)

22

inferential statistics

used to draw conclusions about the data generated from a research study
statistical hypothesis testing-purpose of inferential statistics
-is used to draw conclusions about the diff they have observed b/w conditions of an experiment or about correlation they have observed b/w two variables

23

mean

arithmetic average of a group of scores

24

median

the middle highest value in a group of scores

25

mode

the most common value in a group of scores

26

standard deviation

-the amount that scores in a set that differ from one another
higher SD reflect scores that are more dispersed further away from the mean score

27

inferential statistics to be statistically significant

a difference b/w conditions or a correlation b/w variables must be substantially greater than the standard deviation of scores
-the same diff in scores may or may not be statistically significant, depending on the Standard deviation of scores

28

case studies

in-depth reports about specific cases

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