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Flashcards in 2.1 psychological research methods Deck (38)
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1

before scientific method any statement came from_________

any observation

2

scientific method helps:

-find flaws in peoples theories
-pple have biases but sm tries to minimize their influence when seeking the truth

3

we cant accurately derive our understanding of nature from...

narrow , limited personal experience

4

Ppl experience the world differently b/c of ______

biases they have

5

all sciences are to help over come ______

weaknesses

6

what helped develop scientific method?

psychology

7

father of experimental science

sir francis bacon

8

quality science research must have key variables that ensure ...

objectivity, validity and reliability

9

variable

any object, concept, or event that is the focus of a science investigation

10

objectivity (or objective measurement)

-achieved when measurement of a variable is consistent , despite who is doing the measurement, or what tools they are using to measure it with

11

operational definition

the procedures used to measure a variable

12

validity

the degree to which a measurement procedure actually measures the variable it was developed to measure

13

reliability

the degree that a measure produces the same measurement for a variable across measurement events

14

test- retest reliability

the extent of similarity in scores generated by the same measure for the same person across two testing sessions

15

alternate forms reliability

the extent to which different forms of the same test generate similar scores for the same person across two testing sessions

-often used to overcome practice effects from having already completed the same test before

16

reliability in observational studies

two observers recording the same actions

17

inter-rater reliability

the degree of similarity in observations recored by two observers (or raters )

18

generalizability

the degree that the findings of a research study apply to people and situations other than those that are specific to the study

19

Population vs. sample

everyone vs. a small portion of everyone

20

convenience samples

require more caution when generalizing results, but are often the only practical research option for psychologists

21

random samples are ideal, when possible, because

they justify generalizability when using them to make statements about the populations

22

ecological validity

the extent that the results obtained in a research study will apply in the world outside of the laboratory

23

experimenter bias

a researcher's beliefs and expectations can contaminate their research findings, even without their awareness

24

hawthorne effect

refers to the distorting influence the mere presence of researchers can have on participants in psychological research studies

25

placebo effects

occur when a person's expectation that some treatment will improve their health actually causes health improvements
these can easily occur for treatments known to be completely ineffective

26

how to reduce the effect of demand characteristics

1. maintain participants' anonymity (or at least ensure that their responses are confidential)
2. keep the true purpose of the study a secret until after collecting responses from a participant (single blind study)

27

anonymity

there is no connection b/w participants' responses and their identity

28

confidentiality

only the researcher can link participants' responses to their identity and they promise to keep the info a secret

29

how to reduce the effect of experiment bias

why not also keep important aspects of the study (such as which condition each participant is in) a secret from the experimenter until the study is over? (double blind study)

30

single blind study

keep true purpose of the study a secret until after collecting responses from a participant

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