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1

2010 Remembered

Question 1: Which of the following antibiotics promotes biliary sludge formation?

A. Ceftriaxone
B. Clindamycin
C. Erythromycin
D. Metronidazole
E. Cotrimoxazole
 

A. Ceftriaxone
 

2

***Remembered Q***

What is the action of botulism neurotoxin at a cellular level?

a) Inhibition of acetylcholine esterase at the synaptic junction

b) Inhibition of acetylcholine uptake into nerve terminal

c) Inhibition of acetylcholine release into synaptic junction

d) Inhibition of pseudocholinesterase at synaptic junction

e) Inhibition of anticholinesterase at the synaptic junction
 

c) Inhibition of acetylcholine release into synaptic junction

 

3

***Remembered Q***

The most severe outcome of midtrimester oligohydramnios is:

a) Acute renal failure
b) Amniotic band sequence
c) Foetal compression syndrome
d) Intrauterine Growth Retardation
d) Pulmary hypolasia
 

d) Pulmary hypolasia

 

4

***Remembered Q***

Antibiotic prophylaxis is currently recommended to prevent bacterial endocarditis in which of the following cardiac lesions?

A) pulmonary valve stenosis
B) aortic valve stenosis
C) ASD
D) VSD
E) tetralogy of fallot

 

E. Tetralogy of Fallot

  • prosthetic cardiac valve or prosthetic material used for cardiac valve repair
  • previous infective endocarditis
  • congenital heart disease but only if it involves:
    • unrepaired cyanotic defects, including palliative shunts and conduits
    • completely repaired defects with prosthetic material or devices, whether placed by surgery or catheter intervention, during the first 6 months after the procedure (after which the prosthetic material is likely to have been endothelialised)
    • repaired defects with residual defects at or adjacent to the site of a prosthetic patch or device (which inhibit endothelialisation)
  • cardiac transplantation with the subsequent development of cardiac valvulopathy
  • rheumatic heart disease in Indigenous Australians only

5

***Remembered Q***

A 12 year old girl fell off the trampoline and through a plate glass window and has sustained the following injury

(photo similar to this, but didn't extend quite as far to the radial side)

Which of the following structures would be LEAST likely to be affected?

a) Radial artery
b) Extensor pollicis longus
c) Flexor carpi radialis
d) Palmaris longus
e) Ulnar Artery
 

B. extensor pollicis longus

Traverses the postero-lateral ridge of forearm.

6

***Remembered Q***

What is the mechanism of action of Carbimazole?

A block thyroid peroxidase
B block release of preformed thyroid hormone
C block formation of thyroglobulin
D block peripheral action at receptor
E block iodide concentration in thyroid gland
 

A block thyroid peroxidase
 

7

***Remembered Q***

A couple meet at a Short Peoples’ Convention. The male partner has acondroplasia, and he is the only member of his family to have the disease.  The female partner is of normal stature but her brother has acondroplasia.  What is the chance that they will have a child with achondroplasia?

a) <1%
b) 25%
c) 50%
d) 75%
e) 100%
 

C. 50%

Achondroplasia is autosomal dominant, so the female partner has 2 normal genes and the male partner has one gene. The risk will be 50%.

8

Which clotting factor affects prothrombin time? 


A. VIII

B. IX

C. X


D. XI


E. XII

C. X

PT=INR = Extrinsic Pathway

  • Tissue factor (and Ca) added to blood→ factor VII → activation of Factor X →prothrombin (II) → thrombin → fibrinogen (I) – fibrin (Ia). (end point)
  • So it is affected by VII and X, not affected by VII, IX, XI or XII

APPT= intrinsic pathway

  • All coagulation factors except VII and tissue factor
  • Common pathway (II,V,X)
  • Low molecular weight heparins: inactivate factor Xa, but less effect on thrombin (II) so there will be no change in APPT