Flashcards in 2: Reasoning, judgments and decision making Deck (68)

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1

## What are the two main domains of formal reasoning (logic)?

###
1. Syllogisms.

2. Conditional reasoning.

2

##
What is the formula for syllogisms?

_________ + __________ = syllogism

### Premise 1 + Premise 2 + Conclusion = syllogism

3

## To be correct, a syllogism must be _____ (i.e. logical) and ___.

### To be correct, a syllogism must be valid (i.e. logical) and true.

4

##
Label the formula for these statements and put them in order to create a syllogism:

Therefore, Socrates is mortal.

Socrates is a man.

All men are mortal.

### P1: All men are mortal. + P2: Socrates is a man. = C: Therefore, Socrates is mortal.

5

## To solve a syllogism, what two things must we evaluate?

###
1. It's validity.

2. The truth of its premises.

6

##
Evaluate the validity and truth of the premises to solve this syllogism:

P1: All apples are fruit. + P2: All fruit can swim. = C: Therefore, apples can swim.

### The argument is valid, but it is not true because the second premise is false. We cannot accept this syllogism.

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## What are the two basic heuristics for solving syllogisms?

###
1. Venn diagrams.

2. Replacing abstract entities with more concrete ones.

8

## How do venn diagrams help solve syllogisms?

### They show the relationships among sets of things.

9

## How does replacing abstract entities with more concrete ones help solve syllogisms?

### Makes an abstract syllogism more concrete.

10

## When solving syllogisms using venn diagrams, always look for _____ _______.

### When solving syllogisms using venn diagrams, always look for counter examples.

11

## The tendency when reasoning to look for examples that confirm the truth of some argument is called:

### Confirmation bias.

12

## How may we avoid confirmation bias when evaluating the truth of syllogisms?

### Using counter-examples to arguments.

13

## Who first proposed that people's performance solving syllogisms improves with training, but only if they are explicit taught to avoid confirmation bias by looking for counter examples?

### Helsabeck (1975)

14

## Evaluating the truth of a two-part statement that specifies the relationship between 2 assertions (cause and effect) is called:

### conditional reasoning.

15

## What is an antecedent?

### A thing that existed before, or logically goes before another.

16

## What is a consequent?

### The following result or subsequent effect of something.

17

##
In conditional reasoning, statements take the general form: if _ then _.

_ = cause/antecedent

_ = effect/consequent

###
In conditional reasoning, statements take the general form: if P then Q.

P = cause/antecedent

Q = effect/consequent

C = conclusion

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## What does 'modus ponens' mean?

### Affirming the antecedent.

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## What does 'modus tollens' mean?

### Denying the consequent.

20

##
"If it's raining (P), then I'm carrying an umbrella (Q)."

P: it's raining.

Q: I'm carrying an umbrella

This is called:

### Affirming the antecedent.

21

##
"If it's raining (P), then I'm carrying an umbrella (Q)."

~P: it's not raining.

C: None is possible. I always carry my umbrella, irrespective of whether or not it's raining.

This is called:

### Denying the antecedent.

22

##
"If it's raining (P), then I'm carrying an umbrella (Q)."

Q: I'm carrying an umbrella

C: None is possible. I always carry my umbrella, irrespective of whether or not it's raining.

This is called:

### Affirming the consequent.

23

##
"If it's raining (P), then I'm carrying an umbrella (Q)."

~Q: I'm not carrying my umbrella.

C: It's not raining.

This is called:

### Denying the consequent.

24

##
Describe Rips and Markus (1977) experiment on human reasoning.

Procedure:

Results:

###
Procedure:

Gave conditional reasoning problems to college students.

Results:

Modus ponens problems = 100% correct.

Modus tollens problems = 60% correct.

25

## In the 19_0's's, Peter Cathard _____ introduce a test of logical reasoning he called a _______ ____. This was used to test his theory of _________ ____.

### In the 1960's's, Peter Cathard Wason introduce a test of logical reasoning he called a selection task. This was used to test his theory of confirmation bias.

26

##
Describe the procedure of Wason and Johnson-Laird (1972) experiment on human reasoning.

Procedure:

###
Procedure:

Developed variant of conditional reasoning task using cards. If a card has a vowel on one side, then it should have an even number on the other side.

[A] [D] [4] [7]

Participants were asked to turn over the minimal number of cards to validate the rule.

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##
Describe the results of Wason and Johnson-Laird (1972) experiment on human reasoning.

[A] [D] [4] [7]

Results:

__% picked the A card, and then the 4 card.

__% picked the A card alone.

__% picked the A card, and the 7 card

__% picked another combination of cards.

###
[A] [D] [4] [7]

Results:

45% picked the A card, and then the 4 card.

35% picked the A card alone.

4% picked the A card, and the 7 card

9% picked another combination of cards.

28

##
Solve the puzzle:

If a card has a vowel on one side, then it should have an even number on the other side.

[A] [D] [4] [7]

Turn over the minimal number of cards to validate the rule.

### Turn over A and 7.

29

##
Describe the procedure of Johnson-Laird et al. (1982) experiment on human reasoning.

Procedure:

###
Procedure:

Used a modified version of the Wason task on college students. Participants were given 4 orange cards, with each having a drink on one side of the card and the age of the drinker on the another side.

[Beer] [Coke] [ 35 ] [ 19 ]

If a patron is drinking a beer, they must be 21 yrs+. Turn over the minimum number of cards (check the minimum number of ID's) to validate the rule.

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