Flashcards in 2: Processes, Layout and Capacity Deck (19)
A sequence of tasks and decisions which act on inputs to add value and create outputs. Emphasis on how work is done rather what.
Product stays in one position, workers and equipment come to it.
Equipment and operators are arranged by common process, and work travels between them.
Resources for a particular type of product are arranged together in cells.
Equipment and operators are arranged in sequence by stages of the work done on the product and the product travels between them.
Used to help analyse and understand a process and to aid its improvement or replacement.
Can show what controls a process, what it produces, what areas it covers and what elements make up the process.
Shows the sequence of activities, flow of information, decision points and the range of possible outcomes.
Presented in the form of a flow diagram.
Level capacity planning
Keeping activity levels constant and ignoring fluctuations in demand.
Chase demand planning
Adjusting activity levels to reflect fluctuations in demand.
Trying to smooth high and low periods by changing demand.
Cumulative representations of demand
Plot predicted inventory levels against expected demand.
Highlights areas of slack capacity or excess demand.
The maximum output which could be achieved in a given time period (in theory).
Ignores time needed for maintenance and setups.
The maximum output which could be reasonably expected.
Takes into account time needed for maintenance and setups.
Ratio of actual output to effective capacity.
Ratio of actual output to designed capacity.
Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)
The relationship between availability, performance and quality.
Little's Law / Queuing theory
Av. number of customers in a stable system = av. arrival rate x av. time in the system.
Pitfalls of Little's Law
Uses averages which is not useful since in reality there is variability in arrival and processing times.
Process types in manufacturing operations