2: Processes, Layout and Capacity Flashcards Preview

Operations Management > 2: Processes, Layout and Capacity > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2: Processes, Layout and Capacity Deck (19)
Loading flashcards...
1

Processes

A sequence of tasks and decisions which act on inputs to add value and create outputs. Emphasis on how work is done rather what.

2

Fixed layout

Product stays in one position, workers and equipment come to it.

3

Process/functional layout

Equipment and operators are arranged by common process, and work travels between them.

4

Cell layout

Resources for a particular type of product are arranged together in cells.

5

Product layout

Equipment and operators are arranged in sequence by stages of the work done on the product and the product travels between them.

6

Process mapping

Used to help analyse and understand a process and to aid its improvement or replacement.
Can show what controls a process, what it produces, what areas it covers and what elements make up the process.
Shows the sequence of activities, flow of information, decision points and the range of possible outcomes.
Presented in the form of a flow diagram.

7

Level capacity planning

Keeping activity levels constant and ignoring fluctuations in demand.

8

Chase demand planning

Adjusting activity levels to reflect fluctuations in demand.

9

Demand management

Trying to smooth high and low periods by changing demand.

10

Cumulative representations of demand

Plot predicted inventory levels against expected demand.
Highlights areas of slack capacity or excess demand.

11

Designed capacity

The maximum output which could be achieved in a given time period (in theory).
Ignores time needed for maintenance and setups.

12

Effective capacity

The maximum output which could be reasonably expected.
Takes into account time needed for maintenance and setups.

13

Efficiency

Ratio of actual output to effective capacity.

14

Utilisation

Ratio of actual output to designed capacity.

15

Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)

The relationship between availability, performance and quality.

16

Little's Law / Queuing theory

Av. number of customers in a stable system = av. arrival rate x av. time in the system.

17

Pitfalls of Little's Law

Uses averages which is not useful since in reality there is variability in arrival and processing times.

18

Process types in manufacturing operations

Project
Jobbing
Batch
Mass
Continuous

19

Process types in service operations

Professional services
Service shops
Mass services