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Flashcards in 2: Language and Communication Deck (28)
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1

Who thinks that language is unique to humans?

Nativists

2

Why do nativists think that language is unique to humans?

There is no genetic code for communication and humans are the only ones able to do so

3

Who thinks that langiage is not unique to humans?

Darwinism

4

Why does Darwinism argue that language is not unique to humans?

Animals can grasp certain words such as their name and are able to communicate among themselves

5

What do we know from analysing the vocal cords of Neanderthals?

They were able to make a few simple sounds, most likely imitating sounds around them

6

What is the evolutionary advantage of humans learning language?

It allows us to communicate over long distances when the context of the situation may be removed from the conversation such as talking about a predator seen the other day

7

What were Chomsky's two faculties of langiage?

Broad sense and narrow sense

8

What is the broad sense? (Faculty of language)

The biological ability to master language using the sensory-motor system such as moving the lips and tongue

9

What is the narrow sense? (Faculty of language)

Deep structure of language such as grammar and abstract symbols

Language as a computational system

Surface/Deep structure

10

What are the two types of structure are defined in the narrow faculty of language?

Surface and Deep

11

What is surface structure?

Transformation rules so how the sentence is presented

12

What is deep structure?

How the phrase is structured

13

What is recursion?

The same rule can be applied to a sentence over and over to make it infinate such as the word 'and' or 'that'

14

How might the Vervet monkey calls be evidence that they have language?

They have specific calls and behaviours for each predator

15

How do the Vervet monkey calls indicate a broad faculty?

Vocal communication takes place and is an aquired skill (Much like humans)

16

Why don't the Vervet monkeys have narrow faculty?

There is no abstract linking between words and there are only 3 types of calls which doesn't show a computational system

17

What may be a physical reason why monkeys don't communicate like we do?

Their larynx is lower and our oral cavity is longer meaning we can make a wider range of sounds

The Larynx is associated with two areas of the brain while in monkeys it's only 1

18

What evidence is there in apes that they can use language?

Able to use basic sign langiage, over 125 words and 20,000 combinations

The same level as a 1.5 year old

19

What evidence is there saying that apes are unable to learn language?

Even with sign language, they only made short, ungramatical sentences and showed no inititive

88% of the time, they were responding to the trainer and 54% of the time they were immitating the trainer

20

Which faculty of language is unique to humans?

Narrow sense

21

How is the broad faculty of language shared by other animals?

It's the conceptual and intentional basis of communication as well as the sensorimotor system to do so which doesn't have to be speaking like it is with humans

22

What is Broca's aphasia?

Damage to Broca's area resulting in inability to express language

23

What is Wernicke's aphasia?

Damage to Wernicke's area resulting in an inability to understand language

They communicate fluently and gramatically correct but they lack meaning

24

What is the Wernicke-Geschwind model?

The way in which language is processed and a response is given. There are specific areas of the brain associated with language

25

What is the pathway for spoken language according to the Wernicke-Geschwind model?

Information is received by the auditory cortex

Sent to Wernicke's area for comprehension

Sent to Broca's area so a reply can be formulated

Primary motor cortex for a response

26

How does the written and spoken language pathway in the Wernicke-Geschwind model differ?

Words must be sent to the angular gyrus before they go to Wernicke's area so they can be coded into phonemes

27

What is the arcuate fasciculus?

The neurons that connect Broca's and Wernicke's area together

28

What are some criticisms of the Wernicke-Geschwind model?

It's hard to put language down to a few small areas
The brain can adapt after trauma so language centres can move
Our ability to speak is only in the left hemisphere