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1

Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?

Thomas Jefferson

2

Who said "man is endowed by His creator?"

John Locke

3

What is the 1st written constitution?

Articles of Confederation

4

Which amendment provided a route for newly emancipated blacks to go after states?

Amendment 14

5

What is in Amendment 14?

1. Due process clause (fundamental fairness)
2. Equal protection
3. Privileges and immunities

6

Jim Crow laws

Separated out the races; segregated facilities, etc.

7

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) importance

Established separate but equal; Ferguson won because he argued that the separation was to keep public peace; it was rational

8

Rational scrutiny

Test used by the court when they are looking at the constitutionality of laws; must be deemed rational

9

Sweatt v. Painter (1950) importance

For the first time, the SC upheld the equality portion of the separate but equal doctrine

10

Stare decisis

Latin for "let the decision stand"; precedent case guides other cases

11

Thurgood Marshall

Represented Sweatt; head of NAACP; 1st black associate justice

12

Brown v. Board of Education (1954) importance

Desegregated public schools because segregation itself is unequal ; SC abandoned stare decisis (Plessy v. Ferguson)

13

Swann v. CMISD (1971)

1st time SC approved busing to encourage desegregation

14

What does the Articles of Confederation focus on?

State sovereignty

15

Confederacy

Loose alliance of states; power rests on states

16

4 major problems of A.o.C

Currency, taxation, foreign policy and infrastructure

17

What do federalists want?

Stronger national government, take power away from states

18

What do antifederalists want?

States rights

19

When was the constitution ratified?

1789

20

3 branches of government

Legislative, executive, and judicial

21

4 features of the constitution

1. Preamble
2. Ideological statement and belief and values
3. Power map (article 1, 2, 3 = leg, ex, jud)
4. Bill of rights and article 4 = amendatory article

22

What resulted from the case Marbury v. Madison?

Established the power of judicial review

23

Judiciary act of 1789

Created the basic backbone structure of one of the lower federal court systems

24

Jurisdiction

Ability of a court to hear a certain case

25

Original jurisdiction

Hear issues of fact; district courts

26

Appellate

Hear issues of law; court of appeals

27

What controls the court of appeals and district courts?

Congress

28

What controls the Supreme Court?

Constitution

29

How many circuit appeals (court of appeals) are there?

12

30

What jurisdiction does the Supreme Court have?

Both appellate and original jurisdiction