Flashcards in 1.8 Glycolysis Deck (37)
Where does Glycolysis occur?
Glucose is oxidized to lactate under what conditions?
T or F, Glycolysis is Ubiquitous - Found in all living cells
Role of Liver with Glucose
To serve as a pathway by which excess glucose can be ultimately converted to fat for storage
All of the ATP of the RBC is derived from what type of glycolysis
What do the GLUT transporters do?
Mediate movement of glucose from higher concentration to lower concentration
Which GLUT transporter is insulin dependent
Where is GLUT 2 found
Liver, Kidney and B cells
Where is GLUT 1 found
Brain and RBC
What type of glucose transport tends to be insulin dependent
Cotransport of glucose into the intestinal cell is mediated by what?
Na+ glucose symporter
What transports glucose out of intestinal cell and into blood?
What happens when Glucose arrives in a cell
It is trapped in the cell by be converted to Glucose 6-phosphate. This reaction requires ATP and is first step of glycolysis
Why is Glucose 6-phosphate trapped in the cell
Phosphate esters of charged hydrophilic compounds do not penetrate membranes easily
What is the net reaction of Glycolysis
Glucose --> 2 pyruvate
2 ADP --> 2 ATP
2 NAD+ --> 2 NADH
Anaerobic Glycolysis yields how many ATP
2 net ATP
Under aerobic conditions NADH can be oxidized in Electron Transport Chain to make how many ATP
Where is Anaerobic Glycolysis particularly important
Eye, Kidney medulla, Testes, leukocytes and RBC
What molecules activate Glycolysis
ADP, Pi, NAD+, Glucose
What three Key steps of Glycolysis help regulate the cycle
Muscle hexokinase has a low or high affinity for glucose
High, It has high demands of glucose
How is Hexokinase regulated?
Allosterically regulated by Glucose 6-Phosphate
Where is Glucokinase found?
In the liver
T or F, Glucokinase and Hexokinase are induced by Insulin
False, Insulin induces Glucokinase but does not induce Hexokinase
T or F, G-6-P inhibits Hexokinase but does not inhibit Glucokinase
Which of Glucokinase or Hexokinase has a higher Km
Glucokinase has a high Km
Hexokinase has a low Km
What is the last step of Glycolysis
PEP to Pyruvate catalyzed by Pyruvate Kinase
What is the product of Pyruvate Kinase
ATP and Pyruvate
In what three ways is Pyruvate Kinase regulated
1. Covalent Modification
2. High ATP inhibits Pyruvate Kinase by decreasing its affinity for PEP
3. Inhibited by Acetyl CoA, Alanine and Long Chain FA