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Flashcards in 16.2 the psychological kind Deck (38)
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insight therapies

the goal is to resolve psychological problems by finding their root cause


psychodynamic therapies

the goal is to carefully seek out the unconscious causes of psychological problems, with the assumption that awareness of the cause of those problems will provide the cure
-freudian psychology
*idea is that unconscious conflicts originate from persons past experience


defense mechanisms

unconscious conflicts bw the ID and superego can generate irrational thinking and behaviours


free association

clients talk about or write down their thoughts without constraint or censorship


dream analysis

seeking to understand the nature of unconscious conflicts based on the contents of a clients dreams
-manifest content
-latent content


manifest content

is the symbolic way our conscious minds experience our dreams


latent content

is the deeper meaning of our dreams that reflect unconscious conflicts



aggressive behaviours and strong emotional rxns that provide clues of an unconscious conflict that the clients conscious mind is reluctant to confront



-finding clients unconscious conflicts
-analyzing how the client reacts to the therapist based on the idea that it is possible to reveal unconscious conflicts formed in relationships with other ppl in a clients past such as parents based on how they relate in the social context of therapy sessions
-works best when therapist work in a way that is quite neutral and not responsive to the thoughts expressed by their clients so that the way the client acts toward the therapist can be a pure indicator of their clients unconscious habits in social relationships that have been moulded by painful relationship conflicts from childhood


object- relations therapy

relying on a clients conscious self-reflection and what they remember about their past to understand the source of their mental health problems


interpersonal therapy(IPT)

to help improve their clients success in relationships, the therapist interacts with them as a participant observer to determine the social patterns they engage in


humanistic-existential psychotherapy

the idea is that ppl will naturally pursue self-fulfillment if they receive enough support, acceptance, and encouragement
-in this type of therapy, the therapist is not so directive, but plays a more supportive, coach-type role


humanistic psychotherapy

the focus is on helping clients eliminate the obstacles that prevent themselves from achieving self-actualization
-carl rogers
-the founder of client-(or person-) centred psychotherapy
-conditions of worth


conditions of worth

expectations imposed by other people and ourselves that lead us away from being our true selves and reaching our fullest potential


unconditional positive regard

the therapist accepts, non-judgementally and supportively, all of the views that their clients express


existentialist psychotherapy

the main goal is for a client to confront sources of sadness, discomfort, or fear


a phenomenological approach

the emphasis is on current, ongoing conscious thoughts, perceptions, and feelings, instead of unconscious conflicts and long ago experiences


emotion-focused therapy

clients consciously experience negative emotions and explore sources of their sadness, anxiety or anger to develop skill in controlling negative thoughts and extreme emotional rxns


the effectiveness of insight therapies

very much depends on the quality of the relationship bw the client and the therapist, and on the clients verbal skills


behavioural therapies

the approach is to determine the rewards or habits that support negative behaviours to eliminate those and replace them with positive behaviours


systematic desensitization

eliminating phobias by combining gradual exposure to the source of the phobia with relaxation techniques



eliminating phobias through extreme exposure



method used in certain techniques of psychotherapy whereby the clint learns by imitation alone, w/o any specific verbal direction by the therapist


virtual-reality exposure (VRE)

reducing fear responses through safe exposure using virtual-reality technology
-this is promising treatment for soldiers with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) allowing them to reduce fear responses that remain with them from their experiences in war zones


aversive conditioning

seeking to eliminate negative behaviours by replacing the reward ppl experience with a punishment



a drug meant to help ppl overcome alcohol addiction by generating extreme nausea in them when they consume it


cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT)

thought-behaviour-emotion affects of we think and feel
no side effects from drugs, more time consuming


cognitive restructuring

showing a person how to recognize when their thoughts are irrationally negative and to adopt perspectives and patterns of thinking that are more productive and hopeful


stress inoculation training

helping a client develop skills in reducing severe emotional responses that they experience in stressful situations


systematic desensitization: fear of heights

1. teach relaxation technique
2. write the word height and relax
3. enter bottom of tall building and relax
4. enter higher floor and relax
5. progress to an even higher floor and relax
no side effects from drugs, more time consuming

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