15.2 Personality, Dissociative, and anxiety disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 15.2 Personality, Dissociative, and anxiety disorders Deck (32)
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lists 10 personality disorders
organized in three broader categories (clusters)


Cluster A personality disorders

statistically unusual and problematic behaviour patterns
-paranoid personality disorder (fearful)
-schizoid personality disorder (socially uninterested)
-schizotypal personality disorder (highly superstitious)


Cluster B personality disorders

unpredictable and unusual emotional reaction and emotion-related behaviour patterns
-antisocial personality disorder (no remorse)
-borderline " " (wildly fluctuate from +to-emotional states)
-Histrionic " " (outrageous types who must always ve the centre of attention)
-Narcissistic " "


Cluster C Personality disorders

highly anxious and inhibited behaviour patterns


Personality disorder not otherwise specified

-if not known which cluster or which disorder


Borderline personality Disorder (BDP)

involves erratic fluctuations between intense emotional states
-ppl with BDP have great difficulty maintaining long term social relationships
-BDP unpredictably experience life in extreme positive and negative reactions
-those with BDP are very prone to be possessive and to manipulate friends and romantic partners as a way to control their jealousy and fears of abandonment
-BDP is though to be the result of particularly abusive, inconsistent or neglectful parenting
-Those with BDP tend to manage their extreme emotional experiences with self destructive behaviours, like cutting or substance abuse


Narcissistic personality disorder (NDP)

those with NPD consider themselves as better and far more important than other people
-Ppl with NPD demand to be the centre of everyones attention
-ppl with NPD are also very insecure about threats to their position of superiority
ppl with NPD think of themselves as better, so they consider themselves as entitled to more of everything than everyone else


Histrionic personality disorder (HPD)

-prone to very dramatic emotional expressions with the objective of always being the centre of attention
-charming, provocative and outrageous, these people have a toolkit that allows them to pull focus in any situation
-the need to always be the enter of attention makes ppl with HPD prone to engage in risky and self destructive behaviour
-fulfilling their need for attention means that ppl with HPD will develop skills to selfishly manipulate and control others
-They will also tend to be aggressive at defending against threats to their role as the most popular and notorious person around


antisocial personalty disorder (ADP)

these ppl utterly lack concern for other ppls perspective or feelings
-they are chronically selfish and will lie, cheat, steal, and abuse others to achieve their goals
-they will be cruel and cause pain to other ppl and animals, without any remorse
-the clever ones avoid getting caught either by covering their tracks, getting power and abusing it, engaging in intimidation, or by exploiting loopholes
-ppl with APD do not respond very much to stimuli that cause stress rxns in most ppl
-as a result, ppl with APD do not experience any forms of punishment as a deterrent
-their low baseline for experiencing stimulation makes them prone to engage in extreme, dangerous, and sometimes horrifically violent behaviours
-remorseless mass murderers, like Charles Manson and ted bundy are two of the most famous APD individuals


psychological influences on cluster b personality disorders

-underneath their symptoms, ppl with narcissistic and histrionic personality disorder seem to possess low confidence and the fear that they are inherently defective or worthless
-a lack of self confidence also underlies BPD (as well as the lack of a sense of self that is separate from moment to moment experiences)
-the absence of normal stress response seems to be a critical underlying feature of antisocial personality disorder


environmental influences on cluster b

For all 4 disorders, childhood physical, sexual, or emotional abuse, or neglect are major risk factors
-APD might reflect a numbness that comes from a childhood of being treated with extreme cruelty, as though they are merely an object to be exploited without concern for their feelings


Biological influences on cluster b

researchers also consider the genes a person inherited from their parents as a major factor in their development of a personality disorder such as genes that generate particularly high responsiveness in emotion-related brain areas, in the case of HBP, BPD, and NPD



when a person possesses the features of more than one mental disorder
-it can be difficult to determine the root cause of personality disorder symptoms bc ppl with those disorders tend also to have other metal disorders, such as drug or alcohol addiction


Dissociative disorders

these involve a severe disconnection bw a persons conscious awareness and their feelings, behaviours or memories


Dissociative fugue

occurs when a person loses large chunks of their identity and personal history, in the absence of any neurological damage


Depersonalization disorder

when an individual develops the strong impression that they are not actually a part of their own body


dissociative amnesia

when a person loses their memory for significant chunks of their life experience, w/o any neurological basis fro explaining it


Dissociative identity disorder (DID)

occurs when a person experiences their personality as having divided into separate entities, called alters
-the disorder is thought to emerge as a strategy for protecting part of ones consciousness from the pain of emotionally traumatic experiences


Skeptics are concerned that (DID)...

might be instilled w/in a person by therapists looking for multiple personalities in patients who did not start off with more than one


Cook country Illinois feb 204

Elizabeth gale entered therapy in 1936 for mild depression and came to believe that she had multiple personality disorder and was a part of an intergenerational stanic cult that abused children. through the course of therapy, Ms. Gale also came to believe that she had bred children for the cult who were then sacrificed and cannibalized. she recieved $7.5 million in her malpractice suit against the therapist and doctors who treated her


could psychotherapist be causing dissociative identity disorder?

psychotherapy is a powerful social context in which there is a distinct power imbalance
-DID was never diagnose in japan until Japanese psychologist learned about it from North american psychologists after 1990


Anxiety disorders

Characterized by fear responses that are out of proportion to the true threat posed by the sources of ones fear


Fight or flight response

fear is designed to get us energized to respond to actual threat to our survival


generalize anxiety disorder (GAD)

individuals with this disorder react with intense fear to normal daily stressors/life's challenges


panic disorder

the state of anxiety is not constant, but it occurs in extreme unpredictable burst of fear and dread call panic attacks



occurs when a persons fear of having a panic attack in public causes them to avoid public spaces


specific phobias

are when an individual possesses extreme, irrational fear of particular objects, activities or organisms


social phobias

chronic concerns over being judged negatively by others and a constant fear of being publicly humiliated
-this will result in extreme discomfort in crowds, and when the individual thinks it will be difficult to quickly escape social situations


anxiety disorders

generate a vicious cycle
-i wont know what to say, they'll think I'm boring and stupid
-avoidance of social situations

-ex. i'm terrified of snakes-i know ill completely avoid snakes-oh no its a snake-i'm terrified of snakes



to the source of ones fears is the best way to overcome those fears

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