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Sigmund freud

-personality development
-founded the fields of psychiatry and clinical psychology
-main early contribution was his successful search for apparently elusive eel testicles
-focuses on treating mental disorders
-lengthy discussions
-psychodynamic theory- conscious vs. unconscious


freudian slips

an unintentional error regarded as revealing subconscious feelings


psychological problems might arise from

conflict bw our conscious and unconscious minds
-according to freud, this internal conflict is over control of our behaviour



forms the oldest part of our unconscious mind
as we grow the selfish gratification that the Id motivates has to do with sex and aggression and hunger
the energy that drives the Id is called Libido, the Id follows a pleasure principle


we quickly learn that we cant do whatever we want to do

If adults followed what Id wanted it to do they would be in jail cell



as we grow the rules of right and wrong in our family become another part of our unconscious mind called the superego
-to generate uncomf feelings when we do something that we learned is wrong, also makes us feel good for doing the right thing
-the energy that drives the superego is anxiety



conscious mind
-chose the behaviour to perform in any situation the ego faces the challenge of trying to keep both the Id and superego reasonably happy even though they want opposite things to happen
given the task of balancing Id desires against superego goody-goody attitudes, the ego follows a reality principle


defence mechanisms

methods that the ego applies to reduce pressures from the superego and Id without actually addressing the root cause of those pressures
-are temporary band aids for deeper psychological conflicts



when we want to justify doing something very selfish or morally wrong by developing an explanation as why the action is actually morally acceptable



if the id wants to do something socially or morally unacceptable, the ego decides not to do that but to do something acceptable or at least less unacceptable, as a compromise



to reduce feelings of insecurity about ourselves from the superego, we may borrow qualities from ppl we consider more terrific or powerful thyan we are



reducing the anxiety that would come from realizing that we have some flaw or some unacceptable desire by coming to believe that another person or other people have that same desire or flaw


reaction formation

reducing the anxiety from possessing a morally unacceptable impulse through the ego re-interpreting it as the opposite impulse



reducing anxiety about wanting to engage in socially unacceptable behaviours by expressing that urge through some socially noble or respectable activity


freuds psychosexual stages of personality development

how ppl deal with sexual urges



the consequence of failing to resolve the central crisis at any of the psychosexual stages, resulting in dysfunctional behaviour


Oral stage (0-18months)

the Id's focus on oral gratification
fixation can lead to long term oral related problems


anal stage (2-3 years)

the ids focus is on elimination of wastes and the main challenge is achieving appropriate ways to fulfill this basic biological need
-fixation can lead to long-term cleanliness-related problems
-anal expulsive: id takes over at the end of the stage
-anal retentive : superego takes over


Phallic stage (3-6)

the Ids focus is on sexual gratification through the genitals
fixation can lead to adults who are too selfish or too selfless in their relationship with others
freud believed that penis envy could lead women to seek power, control, and dominance over men


Oedipus complex

boys become sexually attracted to their mothers, generating a hatred for their fathers


castration anxiety

a boys discovery that his mother doesn't have a penis leads him to fear that the father cuts other family members penises off


penis envy

girls are also sexually attracted to their mothers during the phallic stage, and hate their fathers as a competitor, so that also makes them jealous


children forming a secure attachment with each of their parents is important

but freud is strange for thinking the process has anything to do with sexuality


Latency stage (6-13 years)

personality development takes an intermission


genital stage (13 and up)

the Ids focus returns to the general vicinity of the groin and desperately wants to satisfy sexual urges, so the main crisis is in achieving this objective in ways that are socially appropriate
-failure to achieve proper balance can result in someone who is too promiscuous or too sexually repressed as an adult


free association

freud would say a word and the client would report the first word that came to min,d thereby provided a clue about unconscious conflicts


dream analysis

describing dreams


projective tests

involves presenting something to a client and having them provide their interpretation
-rotschach inkblot test
-thematic apperception test


carl jung

founded a movement called analytical psychology
proposed that our personality also includes unconscious archetypes that originate from the ancestral past of humanity


analytical psychology

the idea that our unconscious mind consists of
1. personal unconscious
freuds ideas about the Id, ego, and superego
2. Collective unconscious
(old unconscious knowledge originating from the experiences of our distant ancestors)

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