12.2 genetic and cultural influences Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 12.2 genetic and cultural influences Deck (20)
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1

weird cultures

(western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic)
almost all psychology research is conducted on people from these cultures, but they only make up 12% of the worlds population

2

research with members of non weird cultures

confirms that ppl from those cultures also possess the same 5 core dimensions of personality observed in members from weird cultures
-other research stresses the importance of using ppls native language when investigating personality traits. simply translating from english might bias the type of personality dimensions that emerge

3

a recent study used personality attributes commonly used by native speakers of Chinese to determine core personality traits
this approach revealed 4 core personality dimensions

dependability (related to neuroticism)
social potency (similar to extraversion)
individualism (similar to agreeableness)
interpersonal relatedness (related to skill in maintaining social harmony and respect for traditions)

4

ppl from diff cultures have diff personality traits

but that might just be because they respond differently to the question presented on personality tests
-westerners tend to be less modest and self critical than south asians

5

essentializing

taking small average difference between groups and inferring that the two groups are completely different from one another
would this really capture an essential truth about all Canadians?

6

gender differences in personality

women tend to rank higher than men on measures of extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism. men and women are not all that different, but the human tendency to essentialize makes it seem like we are

7

individualistic cultures

members tend to think in terms of their own personal characteristics to be defensive when criticized, to emphasize their positive qualities, and to take personal credit for their accomplishments
-western

8

collectivistic cultures

members tend to think of themselves in relation to others, are not as motivated to defend themselves against criticism, and are not as likely to take personal credit for accomplishments
-asian

9

genetic influences on personality

the correlation on measures of all five core dimensions of personality for identical twins is .5 and .2 for fraternal twins
identical twins are still much more related to one another on the 5 personality dimensions even when they are raised apart, compared to fraternal twins raised together

10

genetic influences on personality

there is a fare greater correlation bw the personality of adopted children and heir biological parents than between those children and their adoptive parents

11

personality and the great tit (parus major)

two genetically determined personality types: fast and slow exploring
-fast exploring are courageous and risk taking
-slow exploring are cautious and flexibly respond to changes in the environment

12

maybe diff human personalities are also more or less adaptive for diff environmental conditions ?

perhaps there are environments in which being very tough is adaptive and others in which being more intellectual is an advantage

13

animals seem to vary on most of the same 5 personality dimensions that distinguish humans

...

14

humourism

blood
phlegm
yellow bile
black bile

15

phrenology

bumps on the skull different personality

16

hans eysyck

arousal theory of extraversion
-extroverts may require more stimulation to experience physiological arousal, which makes them more social and more likely to take risks
-introverts may experience high physiological arousal at much lower levels of stimulation, which makes intense experiences and social interactions less attractive

17

the ascending reticular activation system (ARAS)

research suggest that the ARAS of introverts is more reactive to lower levels of stimulation than the ARAS of extraverts.

18

jeffrey grays

approach-inhibition model of motivation
behavioural activation system
Behavioural inhibition system

19

BAS

our biological system for responding to rewards it controls our arousal in pursuit of goals that we think will produce pleasant outcomes for us
-extraversion may be caused by a relatively dominant behavioural activation system

20

BIS

our biological system for responding to punishments
it controls our sense of danger and discourages us from doing things that might result in punishment
-introversion may be caused by a relatively dominant behavioural inhibitions system

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