1.2 Bone Tumors Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.2 Bone Tumors Deck (30)
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1

Osteoma
-where usually
-associated syndrome?

-benign tumor of bone
-common on facial bones
-associated with Gardner syndrome (FAP, Fibromatosus of retroperitoneum, Osteoma)

2

Osteoid osteoma

-benign tumor of osteoblasts surrounded by rim of reactive bone
-presents as bony mass with osteoid core
-located in cortex of long bones

3

Osteoblastoma vs Osteoid osteoma
-similarities
-differences (3 ways to distinguish)

-both are osteoblast tumors
1. size: osteoblastoma is larger (>2cm vs <2cm)
2. location: osteoblastoma--vertebrae, osteoid osteoma--long bones
3. aspirin: Osteoblastoma does not respond to aspirin, Osteoid sarcoma does

4

Osteosarcoma
-what is it
-location
-how does it present

-malignant tumor of osteoblasts
-metaphysis of long bones, usu near knee

-presents as fracture/bone pain, no swelling
-Codman triangle (lifting of periosteum)

5

Codman's triangle

-xray finding of osteosarcoma
-shows lifting of periosteum by tumor

6

Osteochondroma
-what is it
-location

-benign bone tumor with cartilage cap
-arises from metaphysis (growth plate) lateral projection

7

what is most common benign tumor of bone?

osteochondroma

8

Giant Cell tumor
-what is it
-location
-clinical findings

-think 'giant soap'
-tumor of multinucleated giant cells and stromal cells
-only tumor in epiphysis, usu near knee
-"soap bubbles" on xray

9

Ewing sarcoma
-what is it
-location

-"go out for Ewings and onion rings"
-malignancy of neuroectoderm cells
-diaphysis
-'Onion skin' on xray. Formed by sarcoma pushing out against bone; extra layers of bone are created.

10

Chondroma vs Chondrosarcoma
-how to differentiate

location:
chondroma--hands/feet small bones
chrondrosarcoma--pelvis or central skeleton

11

which bone tumors occur where?
1. epiphysis
2. metaphysis
3. diaphysis

1. epiphysis--giant cell tumor (only)
2. metaphysis--osteochondroma, osteosarcoma
3. diaphysis--Ewing's sarcoma, chondrosarcoma

12

Which tumors are associated:
1. childhood, adolescence
2. young adults
3. elderly

1. osteosarcoma, ewing's sarcoma
2. giant cell tumor
3. chondrosarcoma

osteochondroma appears in children and young adults

13

most common bone sarcoma?
what are the others?

-Osteosarcoma
-Ewing's, chondrosarcoma

14

osteosarcoma common spreads to where?

lung via blood

15

osteosarcoma:
-what genetics increase risk?

1. mutated Rb
2. Li-Fraumeni (mutated p53)

16

osteochondroma:
-what increases chances of transformation into chondrosarcoma?

-normally <1% becomes chondrosarcoma, but 40% if you have Hereditary Multiple Exostoses (HME)
-auto dom. mutation in EXT gene.

17

enchondroma vs periosteal chondroma

enchondroma : chondroma of intramedullary bone
periosteal: cortical surface under periosteum

18

Multiple chondromatosis

-presence of multiple chondromas, appears in:
1. Ollier's disease
2. Maffucci's syndrome (also has hemangiomas)
-both caused by point mutations

19

Ollier's disease

-hereditary disease
-presents with multiple enchondromas

20

Maffucci's syndrome

-hereditary disease
-presents with multiple enchondromas and hemangiomas

21

non-ossifying fibroma

-benign bone lesion
-very common developmental cortical defect (1 in 4)
-usually heals itself

22

Fibrous dysplasia
-appearance on xray
-appearance histology
-associated disorder

-normal bone replaced with fibrous bone tissue

-thinned cortex
-"frosted glass" appearance of bone
-"chinese characters" of randomly oriented bone trabeculae

-McCune-Albright syndrome

23

-McCune-Albright syndrome

presents with:
1. polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (multiple bones)
2. cafe au lait spots
3. endocrine problems

24

Ewing's sarcoma:
etiology

11:22 translocation
(think: patrick ewing's jersey was 33, = 11+22)

25

80% of secondary bone tumors were metastasized from which 5 organs?

BLT-KP
breast, lung, thyroid, kidney, prostate

26

Unicameral bone cyst (UBC)

-benign bone cyst filled with clear liquid, one cavity

27

Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC)

-'honeycomb' of multiple bone cysts, filled with blood

28

Multiple myeloma
-clinical findings

-involves bone marrow
-lytic lesions throughout skeleton (punched out holes in skull)
-causes pathologic fractures

29

if on xray you see bone matrix formation, suspect what?

-osteosarcoma

30

CD99

use to diagnose Ewing's sarcoma