1.1.4 Antiviral Chemotherapy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.1.4 Antiviral Chemotherapy Deck (48)
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1

What is the viral life cycle?

  1. Bind to and enter susceptible host cell
  2. Uncoating, release of viral genome
  3. After variable dormant period, synthesize "early" proteins (polymerases)
  4. Synthesis of nucleic acids
  5. Synthesis of "late" proteins (structural)
  6. Assembly of viral particles, release of virus

2

Class of drug of rimantadine?

Inhibitor of uncoating (anti-influenza chemotherapy)

3

What is the MOA of rimantidine? Administration route? Side effects?

4

What class of drug do oseltamivir and zanamivir belong to?

Viral neuraminidase inhibitors (anti-influenza chemotherapy)

5

What is the MOA of oseltamivir? Administration route? Side effects?

Neuraminidase inhibitor - prevents viral release and subsequent infection of additional cells

 

*Works best if given early in the course of infection b/c it is used to limit spreading b/t cells and has little effect once the cell has been infected

6

What is the MOA of Zanamivir? Administration route? Contraindication?

Viral NA inhibitor - prevents release and subsequent infection of additional cells

7

What class of drug does ribavirin belong to?

Anti-metabolite - Inhibitor of viral nucleic acid synthesis

8

In which subset of patients is ribavirin contraindicated in?

Pregnant pts - ribavirin is a known teratogen and embryotoxin

9

How is ribavirin administered for pts with RSV? for Hep C virus?

RSV: aerosol

Hep C virus: oral

10

What is the MOA of ribavirin?

Anti-metabolite

11

What are the stages that can define selective toxicity?

Kinase and polymerase

12

What effect does dideooxynucleosides have on viral genome replication?

Chain termination

-No site to add another base on the chain

13

What is acyclovir?

Guanosine analogue

14

What is the MOA of Acyclovir? How is it activated? Administration route?

Guanosine analogue - inhibits viral genome replication

15

What is the mechanism of resistance found in viruses?

TK-

acyclovir doesn't get its initial phosphorylation

16

What is valacyclovir?

Valine ester of acyclovir, increased biavailability because GI absorption through peptide transporter

17

What is ganciclovir used to treat?

Cyctomegalovirus (CMV); inhibition of viral genome replication

18

Administration route of ganciclovir? Initial phosphorylation?

19

What is the difference b/t ganciclovir and acyclovir? How does this manifest itself?

20

What is the MOA of foscarnet? What is it used to treat?

Directly inhibits viral polymerases (DNA, RNA, RT); CMV and resistant herpes

21

How is foscarnet administered? Side effect?

22

What is the MOA of cidofovir? What is used to treat? Drug is given in combination with cidofovir?

Anti-Herpes Agent

23

What is the MOA of Trifluridine? How is it activated? Route of admission?

24

What is the MOA of interferon-alpha? What is it used to treat? What increases it half life?

cytokines analog that helps trigger and immune response

Hep B and C

Pegylated (polyethyleneglycol)

25

What is the standard of care for eradication of HCV?

Pegylated INF-alpha + ribavirin

26

What is the MOA of lamivudine (3TC)

Cytosine analog that inhibits HIV RT and HBV DNA polymerase

27

What is the MOA of telaprevir and simeprevir?

Protease inhibitors for HCV

28

What characteristic of teleprevir causes increased chance of drug-drug interactions?

CYP3A and Pgp substrate/inhibitor

29

What is th adminstration route for telaprevir and simeprevir?

30

What is the MOA of sofosbuvir?

Nucleotide analog that inhibits HCV RNA polymerase