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Abraham Maslow

some of our motivations must take presidency over others


Maslow's Hierarchy of needs

the motivation to pursue higher levels of needs can only proceed after we succeed in pursing lower level needs
physiological needs
safety needs
belongingness and love needs
esteem needs
cognitive needs
aesthetic needs
self actualization needs


Maslow's hierarchy of needs

-failure to fulfill more basic needs will tend to make it impossible to fulfill higher needs
-maslow didn't mention it, but sometimes it is possible to fulfill more than one need at a time
-having self actualization as the ultimate goal is bias of our individualistic western culture
-members of more collectivist cultures may consider group success to be the ultimate goal


the basic human need to belong

this needs relates to the goal to maintain social relationships that generate pleasant feelings in us, these feelings come from knowing other ppl value us
-failing to achieve belongingness affects our mental health-one key source of anit-social behaviour


under-appreciated threats to mental health and causes of social problems

sleep deprivation
information overload
social isolation and rejection


fulfilling our need to belong generates health benefits

-loneliness lowers our immune system and increase our risk of disease
-the ultimate fulfillment of our need for belongingness goes by the term, LOVE


Passionate love

love that is tied to physical attraction and the intense desire to have sexual contact with the other person


Companionate love

lover emerges more from feelings of warmth, contentment, trust, as well as deep knowledge of the other person and strong admiration for them
-more strongly related to romantic relationships that last over the long-term
-our desire for theses sorts of relationships probably arise from the child raising advantage they provided our ancestors



hormone that stimulates the feelings of attachment and closeness that we refer to as love


factors associated with romantic partners staying together for the long-tern include

-having a high level of attraction to begin with
-the obstacles discouraging the break up
-the availability of alternative options
->staying together is an accomplishment, particularly for ppl who do have many appealing alternative options


esteem needs

also known as achievement motivations


achievement motivation and approach goals

we seek achievement through approach goals
money, self esteem boosting, popularity


achievement motivation and avoidance goals

-trying to avoid negative feelings
avoidance of emotional pain
to avoid financial losses
embarrassment avoidance


universal human needs




the need to feel connected with others



the need to feel that we have control over our own destiny



the ability to develop a satisfying level of skill in some area


self efficacy

our belief about how competent we are to succeed in a particular domain


self determination theory

-universal human needs combine to form self determination theory
-our ability to succeed in achieving our goals, our happiness, and our health depends on whether we have control over our ability to achieve those goals


extrinsic motivation

(or performance motives)
are motivations having to do with direct personal gain for performing an activity



when the threat to our autonomy becomes so great that we completely lose the motivation to engage some behaviour, such as our job


intrinsic motivation

(or mastery motives)
are motivations having to do with the inherent pleasure one derives from an activity and from improving one's skill


intrinsic motivation is better

in a recent study, grade 5 students were either praised for their intelligence when solving puzzles (an extrinsic reward), or they were praised for their hard work (encouraging an intrinsic motivation to develop skill in puzzle solving)
later, the children praised for their intelligence were more anxious about solving more difficult puzzles, were more likely to give up, and ended up solving fewer puzzles than the children praised for working hard
-only 13% of the students praised for working hard lied about how many puzzles they solved, whereas 40% of the students praised for their intelligence lied about the number of puzzles they solved


the over justification effect

applying extrinsic rewards to an intrinsically enjoyable behaviour can cause ppl to enjoy the behaviour less and may reduce their motivation to engage in the behabiour


sometimes activities can start out as extrinsically-motivated,

but then develop into intrinsically-motivated behaviours


currently, there is an effort to change ppls behaviour through ways other than bribery or the threat of punishment

there are advertising methods that avoid threatening peoples autonomy and that seek to nudge them into changing their behaviour
-initially persuasive messages are better at prompting changes in ppls behaviour if they focus on the negative consequences of failing to take action
-once ppl are made aware of the severity of a problem, it is better to lighten up and present messages that describe simple actions that will weaken the threat

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