Flashcards in 1.1.1 Infancy Deck (32)
What is Human Growth?
An increase in a person's physical size or mass. Eating or drinking too much and being inactive can result in weight gain. This increase is not part of the normal pattern
What is Human Development?
Changes in an individual's skills and capabilities. Developing physically, intellectually, socially and emotionally is never complete
What is Maturation?
Genetically controlled changes that influence development, e.g. puberty
What are Developmental Norms (Milestones)
The average set of expectations for a child's development however it is important to remember that each child is unique
What is Delayed Development?
When a baby or child does not show developments within the expected time range
What is Holistic Development?
The overall development of the whole person physically, intellectually, socially and emotionally.
What are the Life Stages?
Infancy: 0-2 years
Childhood: 3-8 years
Adolescence: 9-18 years
Early Adulthood: 19:45
Middle Adulthood: 46-64
Later Adulthood: 65
What is Life Course?
The unique pattern of events, experiences and influences in a human's life. Each individual is unique
What is Life Span?
The length of time between birth and death. The maximum life span ever was 115 years
What is Life Expectancy?
The number of years a man or woman living in a specified country can expect to live at a given point
What is grasping reflex?
When you place a finger in a child's open hand and they automatically response by grabbing the finger.
Appears at birth - 6 months
What is rooting reflex?
Where the infant turns his/her head towards the side of his/her face that is being stroked and begins to make sucking motions
What is sucking reflex?
When the baby makes sucking motions when an area of his/her mouth is being touched. This can usually be used to determine how hungry the baby is
What is moro or startle reflex?
When the baby is picked up he/she would automatically jerk their legs to try to find a balance.
Appears at 5 months
What is stepping reflex?
Babies would usually step their legs so their feet a flat surface and attempt to walk although infants cannot support their weight
What is the babinski reflex?
After the babies feet or hands have been tickled the baby clenches his/her hands or feet
What is tonic neck reflex?
Where the baby changes the direction of both arms and both feet. The arms go in the same direction as where the head is turning but the legs go in the opposite direction
What are primitive reflexes?
Automatic responses infants have and certain reflexes remain with an individual for life
What is Egocentric?
Where an infant and children are only able to see the world from their own viewpoint
What are Gross Motor Skills?
Easy movements that require the large muscles in the body. They are easy because it is easier to control the bigger muscles
What are Fine Motor Skills?
More difficult movements that require the smaller muscles in the body. It is more difficult to control the smaller muscles
What is Piaget's Sensory Motor?
Children, during infancy, learn through senses and trial and error methods. They develop object permanence by the end of infancy but remain egocentric
What is attachment?
The process through which an infant develops feelings of trust and security
Name the three types of attachments
- Indiscriminate Attachment
- Specific Attachment
- Multiple Attachment
What is Indiscriminate Attachment?
Where anyone can hold the baby
This occurs at any time under 6 months old
What is Specific Attachment?
The baby is usually bonded to the parents and shows fear of strangers
From 7 through to 12 months
What is Multiple Attachment?
Where the baby's attachment broadens to include close relatives
From 12 months onwards
What is bonding?
The parent's or carers responses to this emotional linking known as attanchment
What are Social Skills?
The development of skills that lead to independence