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Flashcards in 11.1 emotion and motivation Deck (40)
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basic motivation

short term goals
determined by primitive biological signals about our current needs
-ex. our brain receives info when our body requires food, and the brain directs us to fix the deficiencies



stimulation that our brain generates to push us to address basic biological needs



processes that allow us to maintain balance in our biological systems



processes that allow us to develop a state of readiness for anticipated future demands on our biological systems
ex. ppl might get in the habit of eating a big breakfast both to maintain energy levels after not eating anything since the previous day, homeostasis would be the goal in that case, and to ensure sufficient energy for preforming physically demanding tasks in the hours between morning and lunchtime, in that case allostasis is the goal



gives us feeling of hunger
in the ventral medial region



the experience of being full and uninterested in eating any more



-the hypothalamus receives info about glucose levels based on messages sent by special neurons called glucostats
-when the hypothalamus receives info about a drop in glucose levels, it simulates feelings of hunger


cholecystokinin or CCK

when we eat, expansion of our intestines stimulates neurons to release CCK. when the hypothalamus detects enough CCK it stimulates feelings of satiation


ppl love fatty foods

because it reflects our history when we needed high in fat foods to survive
sugar releases dopamine similar to cocain


if eating were just about satisfying hunger how would we explain luaus, undersea restaurant,...

food advertising seeks to get us to think of our food choices as lifestyle and identity choices


there is often cultural pressure for us to eat everything set in front of us, even when we are already full

in the bottomless bowl of soup study, ppl who had soup imperceptibly replaces at 70 % more soup


unit bias

the bias to behave as though the amount of food we receive is just the right amount for us to achieve satiation


social facilitation

when we eat more bc of the behaviour or expectations of other people
ex. when eating less would offend a dinner party host
or when witnessing other people snacking stimulates us to eat more


minimal eating norm

social contexts that discourage very much eating, as on a first date
this is a type of social influence on behaviour that falls under the heading of impression management
-apparently, people vary on how susceptible they are to this type of social norm



when the behaviours of others during a social event causes us to restrain our appetite



an eating disorder in which ppl consume more food than they require to sustain their biological processes
-tends to be especially problematic poorer neighbourhoods and communities partly bc healthy/nutritious food is more expensive than high calorie/ low nutrition junk food


anorexia nervosa

chronic under-eating to the point of self-starvation, combined with a fear of gaining weight and negative views about one's body size, and a lack of concern about the dangers of being underweight


bulimia nervosa

when eating behaviour follows a pattern of resisting the urge to eat, followed by binge-eating, and then purging with self induced vomiting, extreme exercise, or using laxatives


anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa

seem to originate from a desire for more control
the absence of control elsewhere encourages unhealthy efforts to gain control over one's weight resulting in under eating or binging and purging


reproduction suppression hypothesis

females that don't feel well supported tend to binge and diet as a coping strategy
eating disorders that result in low body fat may be a way for women to reduce the chance of becoming pregnant when they are under stress or when they do not feel ready or well supported
this is possible bc low body fat suppresses menstruation- an outcome called amenorrhea


the media is not helping us prevent eating disorders

thanks to insisting on displaying unattainable body shapes as the deal
-also bc of retouching and photo editing, media depictions of the ideal body are often literally unattainable
-fantasy images and stories that communicate messages about beauty and ideal body shape provided by entertainment media are also not helping


sex drive

the human need for sexual contact represents a basic biological need
the drive that motivates us to seek out sexual contact is called LIBIDO


Alfred Kinsey

conducted the first scientific investigating into the sexual behaviour of Americans


The Kinsey scale

his research led him to conclude that homosexuality and heterosexuality are the two extremes of a sexual orientation continuum
37% of males
13% of females had homosex experience that resulted in an orgasim


the reasons why ppl have sex can vary

for physical reasons
to help attain a goal
for emotional reasons
because of insecurity


William masters and Virginia Johnson

-first detail investigation of human sexual response


sexual response cycle

consists of four stages
these graphs show how there is mor variability in the female cycle than the male one, bc women do not reach organism as often and bc women can sometimes have multiple orgasms without any refractory period. the typically much longer refractory period in men is the duration of time after orgasm during which having another orgasm is not possible


orgasms and resolution

the hypothalamus generates the orgasm the point of intense pleasure and release during the sexual response cycle in both men and women
-following orgasm, the hypothalamus signals the pituitary gland to release a hormone, called OXYTOCIN



the chemical basis for the feelings of attachment, trust and intimacy that is also commonly referred to as love


sexual orientation

ones preference for engaging in sexual activity with opposite sex partners (heterosexuality), same sex partners (homosexuality), either (bisexuality) and so on

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