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Congress of Industrial Organization's CIO

made of 8 unions from AFL
unions remained within AFL but expelled in 1936 (suspected links in communism)
CIO broke away but rejoined AFL in 1955


President Kennedy passed

Equal Pay Act in 1963
men and women 'equal pay for equal work'


Johnson's Great Society policy benefited

workers who lived in poverty or close to the poverty line
+ helped workers in other ways


The Civil Rights Act
1. when
2. what did it outlaw

1. 1964
2. discrimination based on race, colour, sex or national origin


The Economic opportunity Act
1. when
2. what did it do

1. 1964
2. increased training opportunities


The Age Discrimination Act
1. when
2. what did it do

1. 1968
2. protected ages 40+


when did merger of the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organization's (AFL-CIO) take place



what did the merger of the AFL and CIO in 1955 result in (union membership)

brought together 85% of union membership
16 million members! = more influence and power


as a result of the merger of the AFL and CIO more unions could now
(7 things)

1. bargain over conditions
2. bargain over wages (union workers pay 20% more than non-union worker!)
3. negotiate over contract conditions
4. gain medical and dental insurance
5. negotiate paid holidays
6. gain pensions
7. negotiate unemployment insurance


gains which resulted from the merger of the AFL and CLO meant

membership of unions had an increased attraction


how did AA position worsen

changes in industry = more demand for skilled workers

AA lacked necessary education - majority living in poverty and being ill-educated from the poor quality schools provided for many AA


how did this period see unions 'consolidate their position'

1. right to join a union now firmly established
2. unions now cooperating with employer
3. confrontation between employers and workers declined since first part of the period
4. workers had gained many benefits
(given as part of a policy to reduce likelihood of strikes -> strikes did reduce 1950-1965)