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release of these hormones control the development of two sets of characteristics:

primary sex traits
secondary sex traits


primary sex traits

physical changes that relate directly to reproduction
-in girls the first menstruation (or menarche) signals the onset of primary sex traits (occurs later for girls who have less body fat and work out)
-in boys the first ejaculation (or spermarche) signals the onset of primary sex traits. approx age 14


secondary sex traits

changes that are not directly related to reproductive ability
hair, breasts, acne


adolescence comes earlier nowadays

-100 years ago, the average age of puberty was 16 or 17, unfortunately, children also often worked in factories for long hours and hardly any money
-now thanks to higher rates of childhood obesity, puberty commonly occurs as early as age 9


early development of sexual maturity can be problematic

-physical objectification of young girls seems to be occurring earlier and earlier
-early developing girls are more likely to participate in intimate relationships before they are emotionally ready
-they are also more likely to engage in substance abuse or become pregnant
-early developing boys are also more likely to engage in substance abuse


important brain development processes are still underway during adolescence

frontal lobes-control impulses and emotional rxns, decisions
-> underdeveloped frontal lobe wiring accounts for risky adolescent behaviour
-it seems that the presence of other adolescents also helps to stimulate those risky behaviours


contrary to popular belief, adolescence isn't usually a ...

chaotic and emotionally traumatic experience


emotional reframing

the tendency to interpret setbacks and disappointments from a positive perspective
such tendencies greatly help at smoothing out the roughest aspects of adolescence


delaying gratification

setting aside short term pleasures in the interest of achieving longer term goals
-across multiple domains, this capacity distinguishes adolescents (and adults) who succeed from those who struggle


delaying gratification:
the marshmallow challenge

children who are able to wait longer at age 4 were psychologically healthier at age 15 and had higher SAT scores when they graduated high school


moral development

if we are learning how to know the diff bw the right and wrong thing
-morality is often up for considerable debate


lawrence kohlbert

trolley problem


trolley problem

a trolley is hurtling down the tracks toward a group of five unsuspecting ppl. you are standing next to lever that, if pulled, would direct the trolley onto another track, thereby saving the five individuals. however, on the second track stands a single, unsuspecting person, who would be struck by the diverted trolley


preconventional morality

selfish motives guide moral decision-making. ppl select actions that maximize rewards/benefits and minimize costs/punishments


conventional morality

society's laws and conventional attitudes guide moral decision-making


post conventional morality

moral decision making is base on concerns about human rights and justice, independent of laws


carol gilligan

in the diff voice of women lies the truth of an ethic of care, the tie bw relationship and responsibility, and the origins of aggression in the failure of connection


the biggest problem with kohlberg's stage model of moral development

what ppl say they would do doesn't have all that much to do with what they would actually do when faced with a real moral dilemma
ex. talk is cheap


Jonathan haidt

social intuitionist model


social intuitionist model

moral behaviour depends on ppls intuitions and emotions, rather than on their deep reflections and reasoning abilities
although intuitive, feeling-based judgments seem to come from your heart or your gut, they actually also originate from your brain
-the suggestion that morality isn't based on logic is not an especially new idea: morals excite passions, and produce or prevent actions. reason of itself is utterly impotent, therefore, are not conclusions of our reaons


social isolation in adolescence

-adolescents harsh reliance on emotional bases for making moral judgments about other sis on cause of bullying and social exclusion
-harsh treatment and rejection by members of their peer group is a major contributor to adolescent mental health problems and suicide


settling on a personal identity is a major challenge of adolescence

identity crises are quite common, in which adolescents try on a number of diff identities before they get to the one that suits them



members of small groups of friends


adolescent crowds

larger groups that are defined by common interest or characteristics


social isolation may have contributed to Dylann Roof's developing violently racist views

roof was indicted for murdering nin black members of a church in Charleston, south caroline on june 17,2015


more commonly, adolescents and young adults turn their anguish over public humiliation and social exclusion inward

in the US about 4600 individuals bw 10 and 24 commit suicide each year. 157000 individuals in that age range are treated for self inflicted injuries


adolescence and sexuality

about 40-50% of CDNs bw the ages of 15 and 19 report having had sex, with yet a higher% of ppl in that age range having engages in lesser sexual acts, such as oral sex
-some surveys reveal that about 60% of heterosexual individuals have had at least one intimate same sex experience in their lives



the signature achievement of this stage is reproductive maturity
-the changes that occur during adolescence are controlled by the release of the hormones, testosterone and estrogen stimulated by the brains hypothalamus
girls- start at 11
boys- start at 13

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