10.2 child cognitive and social development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 10.2 child cognitive and social development Deck (32)
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habituation-dishabituation response

habituation- infants do not spend as much time looking at visual stimuli or events that they already know about
dishabitiuation- surprising and unfamiliar visual stimuli or events tend to capture an infants attention


renee baillargeon

a test of an earlier understanding of object permanence
-the short carrot passes across, and is fully obscured by the structure
-long carrot passes across, and impossibly it is also fully obscured by the structure
3.5 month old infants spend more time looking at this event, suggesting that they found it surprising
-infant looking time is likely a fairer test of what infants know


core knowledge hypothesis

the idea that infants are born with some knowledge about the world, such as a basic knowledge of numbers and how objects should behave


lev vygotsky
zone of proximal development

proposed child cognitive development proceeds most efficiently when (with adult scaffolding) children make an attempt at acquiring skills that are just beyond what they can accomplish on their own



adult mentors should properly match the support they provide to the child's current skill level
-how much scaffolding a parent determines how soon children become independent and contributing member of the family



the emotional sense of closeness and security that a child develops (or fails to develop) with their caregiver or caregivers


harry harlow

studied baby rhesus monkeys
-they liked cloth
-even when the wire mother was the source of their food the monkeys still sought comfort from the cloth mother
-the monkeys need for comfort from a soft and cuddly mother challenged the behaviourist idea that children bond with their mothers bc they need them for food


mary ainsworth

how children react to presence of strangers when the caregiver is absent
-the strange situation


stranger anxiety

young children's discomfort and emotional distress the presence of strangers


the strange situation

parent brings kid to the lab, a room with toys and a stranger
parent leaves and later returns


secure attachment pattern

1. the child is mildly distressed when their caregiver leaves the alone with the stranger
2.the child keeps a calm distance from the stranger
3. when the caregiver returns, the child seeks comfort from the caregiver and they quickly behave happy and relaxed


insecure attachment patterns
anxious/resistant attachment

1.the child clings tightly to the caregiver before they leave the room
2.the child is very upset when they are alone with the stranger
3.when the caregiver returns, the child rushes for comfort, but also seems to push the caregiver away


insecure attachment patterns
avoidant attachment pattern

1.the child doesn't seem very close to the caregiver when they enter the room
2.the child is not at all concerned when the caregiver leaves them alone with the stranger
3.the child ignores the caregiver when they return to the room


insecure attachment patterns
disorganizedd attachment pattern

children behave as though they can't decide whether to seek comfort from their caregiver or avoid contact with their caregiver
they alternately act to seek or avoid contact with their caregiver or they become paralyzed with indecision about what to do


attachment style during infancy predicts...

success in forming adult attachments


forming a healthy and secure attachment bw child and caregiver is a ...

matter of striking the right balance


self awareness

children gradually develop an appreciation of themselves, separate from other people



lacking the capacity to understand that other ppl have perspectives, thoughts and feelings that differ from ones own


piaget asked children to describe what the 3 mtns would look like from the dolls perspective....

but children under about age 7 respond by claiming their perspective as identical to the dolls


theory of mind

the capacity to understand that other ppl have their own minds wit thoughts, feelings, and perceptions that differ from ones own


false belief task

as in the smarties-box-full-of-pencils example, these tasks test whether children will understand that another person holds a false belief, bc that person has not been provided with the info that the child knows that would allow them to avoid the false belief


pro social behaviour

behaviour that is respectful of others needs and involves efforts to help them, while also ensuring that we are treated with respect and that we get out own needs met in ways that are fair and justified
-contagious cry is an early form of empathy
ex. at 5 months old, infants prefer helpful teddy bears over unhelpful ones. at 8 months old, infants show a preference for teddy bears who are kind to other, helpful teddy bears, and display a preference for teddy bears that are mean to another teddy bear that had earlier behaved in a selfish and unhelpful way


instrumental helping

by age 1, children will provide assistance with another efforts to complete a task


empathic helping

by age 2, children will act to help someone who is in distress feel better


two systems underlying prosocial behaviour

attachment behavioural system
caregiver behavioural system


attachment behavioural system

our system for achieving personal comfort and security from others


caregiver behavioural system

our system for helping others


the caregiver behavioural system can only be active if the....

attachment behavioural system is satisfied


conditional approach to parenting

relying on rewards and punishments to motivate children to engage in positive behaviours


conditional approach to parenting

extrinsic motivations block developing intrinsic motivation for prosocial behaviour
-this approach also tends to generate a more negative relationship between children and their parents and can lead to
development of introjection

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