10.2 child cognitive and social development Flashcards Preview

Psychology > 10.2 child cognitive and social development > Flashcards

Flashcards in 10.2 child cognitive and social development Deck (32)
Loading flashcards...
1

habituation-dishabituation response

habituation- infants do not spend as much time looking at visual stimuli or events that they already know about
dishabitiuation- surprising and unfamiliar visual stimuli or events tend to capture an infants attention

2

renee baillargeon

a test of an earlier understanding of object permanence
-the short carrot passes across, and is fully obscured by the structure
-long carrot passes across, and impossibly it is also fully obscured by the structure
3.5 month old infants spend more time looking at this event, suggesting that they found it surprising
-infant looking time is likely a fairer test of what infants know

3

core knowledge hypothesis

the idea that infants are born with some knowledge about the world, such as a basic knowledge of numbers and how objects should behave

4

lev vygotsky
zone of proximal development

proposed child cognitive development proceeds most efficiently when (with adult scaffolding) children make an attempt at acquiring skills that are just beyond what they can accomplish on their own

5

scaffolding

adult mentors should properly match the support they provide to the child's current skill level
-how much scaffolding a parent determines how soon children become independent and contributing member of the family

6

attachment

the emotional sense of closeness and security that a child develops (or fails to develop) with their caregiver or caregivers

7

harry harlow

studied baby rhesus monkeys
-they liked cloth
-even when the wire mother was the source of their food the monkeys still sought comfort from the cloth mother
-the monkeys need for comfort from a soft and cuddly mother challenged the behaviourist idea that children bond with their mothers bc they need them for food

8

mary ainsworth

how children react to presence of strangers when the caregiver is absent
-the strange situation

9

stranger anxiety

young children's discomfort and emotional distress the presence of strangers

10

the strange situation

parent brings kid to the lab, a room with toys and a stranger
parent leaves and later returns

11

secure attachment pattern

1. the child is mildly distressed when their caregiver leaves the alone with the stranger
2.the child keeps a calm distance from the stranger
3. when the caregiver returns, the child seeks comfort from the caregiver and they quickly behave happy and relaxed

12

insecure attachment patterns
anxious/resistant attachment

1.the child clings tightly to the caregiver before they leave the room
2.the child is very upset when they are alone with the stranger
3.when the caregiver returns, the child rushes for comfort, but also seems to push the caregiver away

13

insecure attachment patterns
avoidant attachment pattern

1.the child doesn't seem very close to the caregiver when they enter the room
2.the child is not at all concerned when the caregiver leaves them alone with the stranger
3.the child ignores the caregiver when they return to the room

14

insecure attachment patterns
disorganizedd attachment pattern

children behave as though they can't decide whether to seek comfort from their caregiver or avoid contact with their caregiver
they alternately act to seek or avoid contact with their caregiver or they become paralyzed with indecision about what to do

15

attachment style during infancy predicts...

success in forming adult attachments

16

forming a healthy and secure attachment bw child and caregiver is a ...

matter of striking the right balance

17

self awareness

children gradually develop an appreciation of themselves, separate from other people

18

egocentrism

lacking the capacity to understand that other ppl have perspectives, thoughts and feelings that differ from ones own

19

piaget asked children to describe what the 3 mtns would look like from the dolls perspective....

but children under about age 7 respond by claiming their perspective as identical to the dolls

20

theory of mind

the capacity to understand that other ppl have their own minds wit thoughts, feelings, and perceptions that differ from ones own

21

false belief task

as in the smarties-box-full-of-pencils example, these tasks test whether children will understand that another person holds a false belief, bc that person has not been provided with the info that the child knows that would allow them to avoid the false belief

22

pro social behaviour

behaviour that is respectful of others needs and involves efforts to help them, while also ensuring that we are treated with respect and that we get out own needs met in ways that are fair and justified
-contagious cry is an early form of empathy
ex. at 5 months old, infants prefer helpful teddy bears over unhelpful ones. at 8 months old, infants show a preference for teddy bears who are kind to other, helpful teddy bears, and display a preference for teddy bears that are mean to another teddy bear that had earlier behaved in a selfish and unhelpful way

23

instrumental helping

by age 1, children will provide assistance with another efforts to complete a task

24

empathic helping

by age 2, children will act to help someone who is in distress feel better

25

two systems underlying prosocial behaviour

attachment behavioural system
caregiver behavioural system

26

attachment behavioural system

our system for achieving personal comfort and security from others

27

caregiver behavioural system

our system for helping others

28

the caregiver behavioural system can only be active if the....

attachment behavioural system is satisfied

29

conditional approach to parenting

relying on rewards and punishments to motivate children to engage in positive behaviours

30

conditional approach to parenting

extrinsic motivations block developing intrinsic motivation for prosocial behaviour
-this approach also tends to generate a more negative relationship between children and their parents and can lead to
development of introjection

Decks in Psychology Class (42):