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Flashcards in 10.1 lifespan development Deck (40)
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1

developmental psychology

the study of physical and psychological changes commonly associated with the different stage of our life

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cross sectional designs

involves measuring groups of ppl at a single point in time, but that differ in their age
-have the potential confound of cohort effects-ppl that are diff ages, also developed in diff time periods

3

longitudinal designs

involves measuring the same group of ppl at diff points of time
-these designs are time-consuming and there is a high risk of attrition- the withdrawal of participants from a study over time

4

developmental stages

lifespan changes proceed through patterns of stability followed by periods of more rapid transition

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sensitive periods

the points of rapid change that mark points of transition bw developmental stages

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diff abilities have

diff sensitive periods

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conception

sperm and ovum

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germinal stage

zygote
cell division takes place
blastocyte reaches uterus
blastocyte makes its way down the fallopian tube and is implanted on the inner lining of the uterus
inner cluster of cells forms the developing embryo
the outer ring of the cells forms the developing placenta

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embryonic stage

lasts 2 to 8 weeks after conception
-forms major body parts

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the fetal stage

8 weeks to birth (ideally, around 40 weeks)
100,000,000 million neurons
40,000 neurons per second

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maternal malnourishment

increases the risk of giving birth to lower weight newborns that are more prone to illness and deficits in mental functioning
babies born during world war II experienced a variety of serious physical and psychological problems

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Teratogens

substances that negatively affects the process of development in utero
-thalidomide

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Thalidomide

-pills pregnant women took
-caused severe birth defects, including blindness, deafness and limb deformities called phocomelia

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fetal alcohol syndrome

-infants have both problems with mental functions and physical features

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smoking and pregnancy

-lowers the amount of oxygen needed for the fetus to consume
-adds nicotine and carbon monoxide to the vulnerable fetuses environment
-smoking while pregnant is correlated with miscarriage and infant mortality, premature birth, underweight baby

16

preterm infants

the chance of a baby's survival if it is born at only 25 weeks is about 50% and the babies that do survive suffer permanent damage to their brain and other organs

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sudden infant death syndrome or SIDS

a syndrome in which infants die because they stop breathing
-infants and particularly preterm ones have very vulnerable respiratory systems
-exposure to 2nd hand smoke triples the risk that a baby will die of SIDS

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infant sensory abilities

infants enter the world preferring their mother's voice over other voices
-infant vision is especially well designed to facilitate interacting with their mother while breastfeeding
-infants tasting ability is about equivalent to adults, as well as their smell abilites

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infant social abilities

infants imitate adults facial expressions
-in experiments that measure infants looking time to diff stimuli, babies show a preference for human faces over other comparison stimuli

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newborn human babies are unusually helpless

- compared to newborn members of other species, they are able to walk and swim
-humans are born with a lot of brain development left to do

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after birth, brain development continues in human infants

-myelination of axons to speed transmission of signals
-synaptogenesis (or the creation of neural connections)
-synaptic pruning (deleting unnecessary or weak neural connections)

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infant reflexes

involuntary motor actions that help newborn infants adapt to life outside of the uterus

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rooting reflex

stimulating the corner of an infants mouth causes the baby to move their head toward the source of the stimulation and start sucking

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moro reflex

newborns react with a startle response whenever they lose support of their head

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grasping reflex

touching a baby's palm causes them to tighten their grasp with surprising strength

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motor development

the road to walking alone is a bumpy, trial and error learning process

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jean piaget

interest in child cognitive development

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assimilation

acquiring new knowledge by relating it to what we already know

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accommodation

learning by adjusting old knowledge in the face of new information

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developmental milestones

achieving mastery over a particular skill

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