1: Schizophrenia and Anxiety Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1: Schizophrenia and Anxiety Deck (41)
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1

What percentage of the population have schizophrenia?

1%

2

At what age does schizophrenia usually present?

Late teens to mid 20s

3

What was dementia first described as?

Dementia praecox

4

Who was the first person to use the word schizophrenia and in what year?

Bleuler in 1908

5

What are some of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia?

Reduced speech
Difficulty with goal-orientated behaviour
Neglect of personal heigine
Flattened affect

6

What is flattened affect?

Reduced expression of emotion

7

What are some of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?

Disorganised speech (A lack of logic and constantly changing topics)
Hallucinations (often auditory)
Delusions
Disorganised or catatonic behaviour

8

What fraction of people with schizophrenia have delusions?

4/5

9

What is the most common type of hallucination?

Auditory

10

What are the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia?

Poor attention
Impaired verbal working memory
Impaired executive function - inflexiable thinking style

11

What are relapses and remissions in schizophrenia?

Symptoms go through cycles of improving and being more severe

12

What is the DSM criteria for diagnosis of schizophrenia?

2 or more symptoms present for at least 1 month and 1 present for 3 months

Ongoing signs of illness for 6 months

13

What disorders are often confused with schizophrenia?

Mood disorders (Depression or bipolar)
Substance abuse triggering an episode
brain damage
Huntington's, parkinson's and Alzheimer's all have psychotic symptoms

14

if one identical twin has schizophrenia, what is the chance the other twin will also have it?

48%

15

What percentage of people with schizophrenia have no other relatives with it?

85%

16

How is the age of the father linked to the development of schizophrenia?

The older the father is when the baby is conceived, the higher the chance of schizophrenia

17

What is the interaction between genetics and environment?

They could trigger certain genes to be expressed

18

What neurodevelopmental factors contribute to schizophrenia?

Infections during pregnancy
traumatic birth
low birthweight
cannabis in teenage years

19

How is the brain structure of people with schizophreia different from others?

They have larger ventricles and less grey and white matter

20

How is over-pruning linked to schizophrenia?

Too much pruning in the prefrontal cortex meaning communication between different areas of the brain is disrupted

21

What neurotransmitters have been implicated in schizophrenia?

Dopamine
Glutamine

22

What is the dopamine hypothesis?

That dopamine levels are linked with schizophrenia

23

What evidence is there for the dopamine hypothesis?

Antipsychotic drugs work on dopamine receptors
PET scans show higher levels of dopamine synthesis in patients
High doses of drugs that increase dopamine cause psychotic symptoms
4/10 of the top associated genes are also linked to dopamine

24

What are typical antipsychotic drugs?

They act on D2 receptors and have many side effects such as tardive dyskinesia

25

What is tardive diskinesia?

Involuntary movements of the facial muscles

26

What are atypical antipsychotics?

They act on several classes of receptors including serotonin
Less side effects which are less severe

27

What are the limitations of the dopamine hypothesis?

1/3 of patients don't respond to antipsychotics
The relationship between dopamine and negative symptoms is unclear

28

What is the glutamate hypothesis?

It's due to a dysfunction of the NMDA glutamate receptor

29

What is the evidence for the glutamate hypothesis?

Ketamine was usedd as an anastetic and when patients came round, they had similar symptoms to schizophrenia
Mice bred with less receptrs have signs of schizophrenia

30

How many people are affected by anxiety at some point in their lives?

30%