1: Physiology and pharmacology - Reproduction/Sex steroid axis Flashcards Preview

Endocrine Week 5 2017/18 > 1: Physiology and pharmacology - Reproduction/Sex steroid axis > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1: Physiology and pharmacology - Reproduction/Sex steroid axis Deck (83)
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31

Apart from triggering the LH surge in ovulation, what else does oestradiol cause?

Uterine wall thickening

32

Which axis controls the menstrual cycle?

Hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis

33

Which hormone is released by the hypothalamus to stimulate secretion of TSH and LH from the anterior pituitary?

GnRH

34

TSH and LH are also known as what?

Gonadotrophins

35

Which precursor are female sex hormones produced from?

Cholesterol

36

Which part of the hypothalamus produces GnRH?

Arcturate nucleus

37

Which part of the pituitary gland produces FSH and LH?

Anterior pituitary gland

38

Which ligament fixes the ovary to the pelvic side wall?

IP ligament

(infundibulopelvic ligament)

39

What are the two parts of the ovary?

Cortex

Medulla

(as in adrenal glands)

40

What are the two parts of the uterus called?

Body

Cervix

from superior to inferior

41

What is the superficial layer of the uterus called?

Endometrium

42

Which hormone causes the endometrium to thicken?

Oestradiol

43

In the luteal phase, which two hormones must be produced to stop the endometrium sloughing off the uterine wall?

Progesterone (if corpus luteum disintegrates, levels fall)

hCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin, produced by placenta after implantation)

44

What is hCG?

Human chorionic gonadotrophin

Produced by placenta after implantation; stops sloughing of uterine wall i.e menstruation

45

Which cells are found in ovarian follicles and produce androgen?

Theca cells

46

Which hormone stimulates Theca cells to produce androgen?

LH

47

Which cells are found in ovarian follicles and produce aromatase?

Granulosa cells

48

Which hormone stimulates granulosa cells to produce aromatase?

FSH

49

Aromatase combines with ___ to form oestradiol.

androgen

50

Progesterone is produced by the ___ ___.

Progesterone can then be converted into androgen in ___ cells.

This product is then combined with aromatase to form oestrogen in ___ cells.

corpus luteum

Theca cells

Granulosa cells

51

GnRH is released in a ___ fashion by the hypothalamus.

pulsatile

52

What is FSH's role in the HPO axis?

Stimulates leading follicle

Granulosa cell growth and aromatase activity

53

What does LH do?

Surge causes ovulation

Activates theca cells, which convert androgens to oestrogens

54

Which peptide hormones decrease FSH secretion by negative feedback?

Inhibins

55

Which peptides stimulate FSH secretion?

Activins

56

The testes can be split into which two compartments?

Seminiferous tubules

Interstitial fluid

57

Which cells are found in the

a) seminiferous tubules

b) interstitial fluid

of the testes?

a) Tubular cells - Sertoli cells, Germ cells

b) Interstitial cells Leydig cells

58

What do Sertoli cells do?

Support Germ cells during their development into spermatozoa

59

What do Germ cells do?

Differentiate into spermatozoa

60

What do Leydig cells do?

Secrete testosterone in response to LH