Apart from triggering the LH surge in ovulation, what else does oestradiol cause?
Uterine wall thickening
Which axis controls the menstrual cycle?
Which hormone is released by the hypothalamus to stimulate secretion of TSH and LH from the anterior pituitary?
TSH and LH are also known as what?
Which precursor are female sex hormones produced from?
Which part of the hypothalamus produces GnRH?
Which part of the pituitary gland produces FSH and LH?
Anterior pituitary gland
Which ligament fixes the ovary to the pelvic side wall?
What are the two parts of the ovary?
(as in adrenal glands)
What are the two parts of the uterus called?
from superior to inferior
What is the superficial layer of the uterus called?
Which hormone causes the endometrium to thicken?
In the luteal phase, which two hormones must be produced to stop the endometrium sloughing off the uterine wall?
Progesterone (if corpus luteum disintegrates, levels fall)
hCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin, produced by placenta after implantation)
What is hCG?
Human chorionic gonadotrophin
Produced by placenta after implantation; stops sloughing of uterine wall i.e menstruation
Which cells are found in ovarian follicles and produce androgen?
Which hormone stimulates Theca cells to produce androgen?
Which cells are found in ovarian follicles and produce aromatase?
Which hormone stimulates granulosa cells to produce aromatase?
Aromatase combines with ___ to form oestradiol.
Progesterone is produced by the ___ ___.
Progesterone can then be converted into androgen in ___ cells.
This product is then combined with aromatase to form oestrogen in ___ cells.
GnRH is released in a ___ fashion by the hypothalamus.
What is FSH's role in the HPO axis?
Stimulates leading follicle
Granulosa cell growth and aromatase activity
What does LH do?
Surge causes ovulation
Activates theca cells, which convert androgens to oestrogens
Which peptide hormones decrease FSH secretion by negative feedback?
Which peptides stimulate FSH secretion?
The testes can be split into which two compartments?
Which cells are found in the
a) seminiferous tubules
b) interstitial fluid
of the testes?
a) Tubular cells - Sertoli cells, Germ cells
b) Interstitial cells - Leydig cells
What do Sertoli cells do?
Support Germ cells during their development into spermatozoa
What do Germ cells do?
Differentiate into spermatozoa
What do Leydig cells do?
Secrete testosterone in response to LH