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1

nervous system is divided into.... (2)

central nervous system (CNS)
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

2

nuclei vs ganglia

nuclei= cell bodies in CNS (similar structure & function)

ganglia= cell bodies in PNS (similar structure & function)

3

what makes up the CNS

brain
retina
spinal cord

4

what makes up the PNS?

cranial and spinal nerves
various ganglia

5

what are cranial nerves

emerge from brain and go to structures

theres 12

6

what are cranial nerves?

emerge form brain and go to spinal cord

7

3 main subdivisions of the brain

forebrain
cerebellum
brainstem

8

what is the forebrain composed of

2 massive cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon

9

what separates the 2 cerebral hemispheres?

(medial) longitudinal fissure

10

are there more neurons or glial cells in the brain??

MORE GLIAL CELLS

11

how many neurons in the brain

100 billion neurons

12

how many glial cells in the brain

1 trillion glial cells in brain/spinal cord and PNS

13

what are neurons

information processing and signalling elements

used to convey information (electrical signals)

14

3 major components of a neuron

1) cell body/soma
2) dendrites
3) axon

15

function of cell body/soma?

supports metabolic and synthetic needs of neuron

16

function of dendrites?

RECEIVE information

- they are tapering processes

17

function of axons?

conducts information AWAY from cell body

- long, cylindrical processes

18

what are sensory neurons

either directly sensitive to various stimuli, or receive direction connections from non-neuronal receptor cells

19

where do motor neurons end?

directly on muscles, glands or other neurons in PNS ganglia

20

where are the processes of interneurons

processes confined to single small area in CNS

21

what are projecting neurons

have long axons connecting different areas

22

who is Ramon Cajal?

Father of Modern Neuroscience

- neurons are individual elements
- described functional circuits
- pyramidal cell from layer 3 impregnanted with Golgi method

- small number of cells get stained, able to differentiate structure led to identification of different cell types

23

what is Cajal famous for?

Golgi Technique & Silver stain

24

what are synapses

location where neurons COMMUNICATE with each other

- input= dendrite
- output= axon

25

what is neuroanatomy?

describes connections between neurons that lead to pathways and circuits that subserve specific functions

26

3 types of neuroglial cells

1) Macroglia
2) microglia
3) ependymal cells

27

3 types of MACROGLIA

1- astrocytes
2- oligodendrocyte
3- Schwann Cell

28

2 types of astrocytes and associated with?

protoplasmic= associated with neuron CELL BODIES (gray matter)

fibrous= associated with dendrites and axons, processes of neurons (white matter)

29

function of astrocytes

- regulate exchange of molecules
- contributes to BBB
- regulate blood flow
- contribute to structural integrity of nervous tissue (structural support)
- sense/monitor neural activity

30

what happens if increase Ca in astrocyte?

increase diameter of arteries (VASODILATION)

- because astrocytes have processes onto them