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key term

workforce or workers as opposed to employers or owners of the factories and other industrial enterprises


key term

negotiations between employers and employees to resolve disputes and reach a settlement


key term

an economic system based on private enterprise rather than state control of the economy.
companies are privately owned and consumers therefore have a choice of which goods to buy.


key term
Collective bargaining

Workers' representatives join together and negotiate over issues such as pay and conditions


key term
No-strike clauses

Provisions in workers' contracts to forbid striking


what were the 5 issues around the position of union and labour rights (during the period)

1. the right for unions to exist
2. recognition of unions
3. the involvement of unions in negotiations over pay and working conditions
4. the establishment of systems for mediation
(negotiations between employers and employees to resolve disputes and reach a settlement)
5. the freedom of workers to withdraw their labour without fear of punishment


what influenced the progress of union rights during the period

economic change
growth of capitalism
amount of immigration


start of the period
3 points

1. rights of workers and unions completely dependent on what workers could negotiate with employers
2. no requirement for employers to even recognise unions let alone negotiate with them
3. workers had no representation or protection from employers and could be exploited


end of the period
3 points

1. workers won right to join a union. HOWEVER employers had been able to create workplaces where unions were forbidden
2. unions had secured the right to collective bargaining HOWEVER limited in practice
3. unions had secured right for workers to withdraw labour and go on strike HOWEVER limited some employers ad brought in no-strike clauses


why were workers forced to accept workplaces where unions were forbidden (at the end of the period)

actual fall in wages
fears they would loose their jobs because of the decline in the economy


does position of workers improve since the start of they period?

yes HOWEVER gains were not always maintained.