Flashcards in 1-5 Abdominal Organization and Peritoneum Deck (65)
What are the lines that are used to divide the surface abdomen into 9 parts? What's the orientation?
Vertical - 2 midclavicular lines
subcostal line - inferior to 10th rib
transtubercular line - passes through tubercles of iliac crests
What is the orientation of the lines that divide the surface of the abdomen into quadrants?
2 perpendicular lines which intersect at the umbilicus
What are the limits of the abdominopelvic cavity?
Thoracoabdominal diaphragm (superior)
(pelvic brim in between)
Pelvic diaphragm (inferior)
What are the connective in the abdominopelvic cavity? (superficial to deep)
1. Transversalis fascia
2. Extraperitoneal connective tissue
What does transversalis fascia line?
Entire abdominopelvic cavity - doesn't extend into mesenteries
What attaches viscera to posterior abdominal wall?
What does extraperitoneal connective tissue line? What is the tissue made up of?
Underlies all visceral peritoneum - AKA subserous fascia
Loose areolar and fatty layer
- between transversalis fascia and parietal peritoneum
What does the peritoneum line? What does it support?
A mesothelial layer (simple squamous epithelium of mesodermal origin)
lines the abdominopelvic cavity (parietal)
covers the organs suspended within it and forms all mesenteries (visceral)
What is the serosa in the peritoneum? Where is it secreted, and what is it's purpose?
Mesothelium along with an accompanying layer of submesothelial connective tissue form a serosa which secretes a thin, watery fluid (serous fluid) that reduces friction between opposing peritoneal surfaces
Is the peritoneum an open or closed sac?
Closed - the abdominal organs are pushed into it and suspended
What is the area within the peritoneal sac? What are the contents?
The area within the peritoneal sac is referred to as the peritoneal cavity and its only normal content is serous fluid.
In what cavity are abdominal organs housed?
How is the peritoneal cavity divided?
greater and lesser peritoneal sac
What does the greater sac of the peritoneum include?
The greater sac includes all areas within the peritoneal cavity except the area housed within the omental bursa
What are mesenteries? What is another name for them? What do they often contain?
Mesenteries are duplications of peritoneum which are reflected against one another (two layers) as parietal peritoneum transitions into visceral peritoneum
often referred to as peritoneal ligaments
possess a core of extraperitoneal CT in which vessels, nerves and lymphatics course to and from organs
What are peritonealized or intraperitoneal organs?
Organs covered and suspended by a mesentery
What are organs that are covered by peritoneum on one surface?
retroperitoneal, extraperitoneal or subperitoneal
How are retroperitoneal organs suspended?
Retroperitoneal structures are affixed directly to the posterior abdominal wall and are not suspended by a mesentery
What are primary retroperitoneal organs?
Primarily retroperitoneal are organs which originally developed in a retroperitoneal position, i.e. kidney
What are secondary retroperitoneal organs? What are some secondary retroperitoneal organs?
Secondarily retroperitoneal are organs which were originally peritonealized, but upon fixation to the posterior body wall during development, became retroperitoneal
Includes: duodenum, ascending and descending colon
How is the abdominopelvic cavity compartmentalized in a general sense? What divides it?
The abdominopelvic peritoneal cavity is divided transversely at the level of the transverse colon into supracolic and infracolic compartments by the passage of the transverse mesocolon
Where is the infracolic compartment?
Peritonealized area directly inferior to the transverse colon and its associated mesocolon
What does the infracolic compartment house?
What divides the infracolic compartment?
Subdivided into right and left infracolic compartments by the passage of the mesentery proper
What are the boundaries of the right infracolic compartment?
Superior: Transverse colon and its mesocolon
Right: Ascending colon
Left: Right side of the root of the mesentery Inferiorly: Root of the mesentery and cecum
What are the boundaries of the left infracolic compartment?
Superior: Transverse colon and its mesocolon
Right: Left side of the root of the mesentery Left: Descending colon
Inferior: Sigmoid colon
What are the paracolic gutters? Where are they located?
Paired, right and left areas of the infracolic compartment which exist lateral to the ascending and descending colon
What does the right paracolic gutter communicate with?
communicates above with the hepatorenal recess and the pelvic peritoneal cavity below
What does the left paracolic gutter communicate with?
closed superiorly by the phrenicocolic ligament and opens inferiorly to the pelvic peritoneal cavity