1-5 Abdominal Organization and Peritoneum Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1-5 Abdominal Organization and Peritoneum Deck (65)
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What are the lines that are used to divide the surface abdomen into 9 parts? What's the orientation?

Vertical - 2 midclavicular lines

Horizontal -
subcostal line - inferior to 10th rib
transtubercular line - passes through tubercles of iliac crests


What is the orientation of the lines that divide the surface of the abdomen into quadrants?

2 perpendicular lines which intersect at the umbilicus


What are the limits of the abdominopelvic cavity?

Thoracoabdominal diaphragm (superior)
(pelvic brim in between)
Pelvic diaphragm (inferior)


What are the connective in the abdominopelvic cavity? (superficial to deep)

1. Transversalis fascia
2. Extraperitoneal connective tissue
3. Peritoneum


What does transversalis fascia line?

Entire abdominopelvic cavity - doesn't extend into mesenteries


What attaches viscera to posterior abdominal wall?



What does extraperitoneal connective tissue line? What is the tissue made up of?

Underlies all visceral peritoneum - AKA subserous fascia

Loose areolar and fatty layer
- between transversalis fascia and parietal peritoneum


What does the peritoneum line? What does it support?

A mesothelial layer (simple squamous epithelium of mesodermal origin)

lines the abdominopelvic cavity (parietal)

covers the organs suspended within it and forms all mesenteries (visceral)


What is the serosa in the peritoneum? Where is it secreted, and what is it's purpose?

Mesothelium along with an accompanying layer of submesothelial connective tissue form a serosa which secretes a thin, watery fluid (serous fluid) that reduces friction between opposing peritoneal surfaces


Is the peritoneum an open or closed sac?

Closed - the abdominal organs are pushed into it and suspended


What is the area within the peritoneal sac? What are the contents?

The area within the peritoneal sac is referred to as the peritoneal cavity and its only normal content is serous fluid.


In what cavity are abdominal organs housed?

abdominal cavity


How is the peritoneal cavity divided?

greater and lesser peritoneal sac


What does the greater sac of the peritoneum include?

The greater sac includes all areas within the peritoneal cavity except the area housed within the omental bursa


What are mesenteries? What is another name for them? What do they often contain?

Mesenteries are duplications of peritoneum which are reflected against one another (two layers) as parietal peritoneum transitions into visceral peritoneum

often referred to as peritoneal ligaments

possess a core of extraperitoneal CT in which vessels, nerves and lymphatics course to and from organs


What are peritonealized or intraperitoneal organs?

Organs covered and suspended by a mesentery


What are organs that are covered by peritoneum on one surface?

retroperitoneal, extraperitoneal or subperitoneal


How are retroperitoneal organs suspended?

Retroperitoneal structures are affixed directly to the posterior abdominal wall and are not suspended by a mesentery


What are primary retroperitoneal organs?

Primarily retroperitoneal are organs which originally developed in a retroperitoneal position, i.e. kidney


What are secondary retroperitoneal organs? What are some secondary retroperitoneal organs?

Secondarily retroperitoneal are organs which were originally peritonealized, but upon fixation to the posterior body wall during development, became retroperitoneal

Includes: duodenum, ascending and descending colon


How is the abdominopelvic cavity compartmentalized in a general sense? What divides it?

The abdominopelvic peritoneal cavity is divided transversely at the level of the transverse colon into supracolic and infracolic compartments by the passage of the transverse mesocolon


Where is the infracolic compartment?

Peritonealized area directly inferior to the transverse colon and its associated mesocolon


What does the infracolic compartment house?

small intestine


What divides the infracolic compartment?

Subdivided into right and left infracolic compartments by the passage of the mesentery proper


What are the boundaries of the right infracolic compartment?

Superior: Transverse colon and its mesocolon
Right: Ascending colon
Left: Right side of the root of the mesentery Inferiorly: Root of the mesentery and cecum


What are the boundaries of the left infracolic compartment?

Superior: Transverse colon and its mesocolon
Right: Left side of the root of the mesentery Left: Descending colon
Inferior: Sigmoid colon


What are the paracolic gutters? Where are they located?

Paired, right and left areas of the infracolic compartment which exist lateral to the ascending and descending colon


What does the right paracolic gutter communicate with?

communicates above with the hepatorenal recess and the pelvic peritoneal cavity below


What does the left paracolic gutter communicate with?

closed superiorly by the phrenicocolic ligament and opens inferiorly to the pelvic peritoneal cavity


Where is the supracolic compartment?

Peritonealized area between the thoracoabdominal diaphragm and the transverse colon and its associated mesocolon