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Flashcards in 07) Quality Management Deck (49)
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What is the process of quality management?

  • Plan Quality Management
  • Perform Quality Assurance
  • Control Quality


What are the key outputs fo the Plan Quality Management process?

  • Quality management plan
  • Quality metrics
  • Quality checklists
  • Process improvement plan
  • Updates to project documents


What are the key outputs of the Perform Quality Assurance process?

  • Change requests
  • Updates to standards, processes, and quality systems (organizational process assets)
  • Updates to project management plan and project documents


What are the key outputs of the Control Quality process?

  • Quality control measurements
  • Validated changes
  • Work performance information
  • Updates to project management plan and project documents
  • Change requests
  • Lessons learned (part of updates to organzational process assets)
  • Verified deliverables


What is the definition of quality?

The degree to which the project fulfills requirements


How does quality differ from grade?

Whereas quality is the degree to which requirements are fulfilled, grade refers to a general category or classification for a deliverable or resource that indicates common function, but varying technical specifications


What does gold plating mean?

Adding extra items and services to customer deliverables that do not necessarily contribute added value or quality


What is marginal analysis?

An analysis to determine when optimal quality is reached - to determine the point where incremental benefits or revenue from improving quality equals the incremental cost to secure it


What is a process improvement plan?

A plan for analyzing the processes used on the project to improve them, looking for ways to decrease defects, save time and money, and increase customer satisfaction


What are quality metrics?

Specific measures of quality to be used on the project in the Perform Quality Assurance and Control Quality processes


What does continuous improvement mean?

The ongoing enhancement of a product or service through small, continuous improvements in quality


How much inventory is maintained in a just in time (JIT) environment?

Little inventory is maintained


How does just in time (JIT) inventory affect attention to quality?

It forces attention to quality


What does ISO 9000 stand for?

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) quality standards that help organizations ensure that they have quality procedures and are following them


What is the definition of total quality management, or TQM?

A comprehensive management philosophy that encourages companies to find ways to continuously improve the quality of business practices, products, and services at every level of the organization.


Why is "prevention over inspection" important?

Because the cost of avoiding or preventing mistakes is much less than the cost of correcting them


What does mutual exclusivity mean?

Two events are said to be mutually exclusive if they cannot both occur in a single trial (for example, you can't get both a 5 and a 6 on a single roll of a die)


What is statistical independence?

The probability of event "B" occurring does not depend on event "A" occurring (for example, the outcome of a second roll of a die is not dependent on the outcome of the first roll)


What is a normal distribution curve?

  • A symmetric bell-shaped frequency distribution curve used to measure variation
  • This is the most common probability distribution


What does sigma signify in a process?

How much variance from the mean has been established as permissible in a process


What's another name for sigma?

Standard deviation


What do 3 sigma and 6 sigma refer to?

These are commonly used as quality standards

  • 3 sigma: +/- 3 standard deviations from the mean
  • 6 sigma: +/- 6 standard deviations from the mean

6 sigma is a higher quality standard than 3 sigma


What is the difference between a population and a sample?

  • Population: The total number of individual members, items, or elements comprising a uniquely defined group (e.g., all women)
  • Sample: A statistically valid subset of population members (e.g., women randomly chosen to represent the population)


Who has responsibility for quality on a project?

Although team members must inspect their own work, the project manager has the ultimate responsibility for quality


What are the impacts of poor quality?

  • Increased costs
  • Decreased profits
  • Low morale
  • Low customer satisfaction
  • Increased risk
  • Rework
  • Schedule delays


What are examples of costs of conformance and costs of nonconformance?

Costs of conformance:

  • Quality training
  • Studies
  • Surveys
  • Efforts to ensure everyone knows the processes to use to complete their work

Costs of nonconformance:

  • Rework
  • Scrap
  • Inventory costs
  • Warranty costs
  • Lost business


What are costs of nonconformance associated with?

Cost of nonconformance are associated with poor quality


Which should be greater, the costs of conformance or nonconformance?

The costs of conformance should be less than the costs of nonconformance


What are the seven basic quality tools (7QC)?

  • Cause and effect diagram
  • Flowchart
  • Checksheet
  • Pareto diagram
  • Histogram
  • Control chart
  • Scatter diagram


What is a quality checklist?

A list of items to inspect, a list of steps to perform, or a picture of an item to be inspected, with space to note any defects found